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  • Author or Editor: Wayne McLaurin x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Sweetness, which is known to vary significantly among clones, is the dominant sensory attribute characterizing the flavor of sweetpotatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. The relative sweetness of baked roots, expressed as sucrose equivalents, was determined for 272 clones from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Plant Germplasm System collection. The clones were from 34 countries that collectively produced 93% of the world's sweetpotato production in 2002. Individual clones were separated into five categories based upon the concentration and relative sweetness of individual sugars, expressed numerically as sucrose equivalents per 100 g dry mass: very high ≥38; high 29-37; moderate 21-28; low 12-20; and nonsweet ≤12. Based upon the mean sucrose equivalents of the clones for each country, only 9% of the countries, which accounted for only 2.1% of the total annual production of the countries surveyed, had sweetpotatoes that were classified as very high. While the majority (62%) of the countries surveyed had clones that were categorized as high, they represented only 4.4% of the total production of sweetpotatoes. None of the countries had mean sucrose equivalent values that were categorized as low or nonsweet, although a few individual clones were ranked as low and one as nonsweet. Countries that account for the majority (87%) of the sweetpotatoes grown worldwide had a mean sucrose equivalent ranking of moderate. Sweetness is derived from the composite of endogenous sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and maltose formed via starch hydrolysis during baking. Maltose accounted for only 42% of the average contribution to the total sucrose equivalents. The range in the concentration of individual sugars among clones was substantial as was their contribution to sucrose equivalents. Sucrose equivalents due to maltose in individual clones ranged from 0.6 to 21.9 while endogenous sugars ranged from 6.4 to 46.9. The results indicate that essentially all of the sweetpotato clones tested from around the world were classified as equal to or greater than moderate in sucrose equivalents, and that there is substantial genetic diversity within the genepool such that the potential exists for tailoring the flavor of new cultivars, via significantly increasing or decreasing sugar content, to meet specific consumer preferences and/or product uses.

Free access

Abstract

‘Louisiana Green Velvet’ okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] was grown on a Commerce clay loam soil with factorial combinations of preplant N rates (0, 45, 90, 135 kg/ha) and sidedress N rates (0, 22.5, 45.0 kg/ha). In 1976, pod color, liquor color, general appearance, and firmness values of brine-processed pods increased linearly as the amount of preplant N increased. In 1977, preplant N effected a quadratic response in liquor color and general appearance values and a linear response in firmness values.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Champion’, ‘Georgia’, ‘Heavicrop’, and ‘Vates’ collards (Brassica oleracea L. var acephala) were planted in Fletcher and Lewiston, N.C.; Charleston, Clemson, and Florence, S.C.; and Attapulgus and Plains, Ga. to determine the most reliable method to predict harvest maturity based on temperature. Although cultivar differences existed within some of the planting dates, when pooled over all planting dates, cultivars yielded similarly within locations. Eight methods of calculating heat units from planting to harvest were applied to daily maximum and minimum air temperatures supplied from local weather bureaus for the spring and fall growing seasons from 1985 through 1987 in the three-state area. Coefficients of variation were used to determine which method was most reliable in predicting day of first harvest. The method with the lowest cv was to sum, over days for planting to harvest, the difference between the daily maximum and a base temperature of 13.4C; however, if the maximum was >23.9C, the base temperature was subtracted from an adjusted maximum equal to 23.9C minus the difference between the maximum and 23.9C. This method produced a cv of 9.1% compared to 11.4% for the standard method of summing the mean temperature minus the base of 4.4C over the entire growing season, or compared to 13.4% for counting days to harvest from planting.

Open Access