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The standard mix used by most nurseries consist of a 9 pine bark: 1 sand. With the ever-increasing cost of bark, nurseries are looking for an alternative. Sawmill residue may hold potential utility as part of a potting mix. Although sawmill residue is highly variable, it can serve as soil bulk as well as an organic medium. The purpose of this study was to determine if old sawmill residue not treated by pathogen-free requirement procedures could be used “as is” as part of a nursery soil mix. For this study, a sample, a typical conglomerate of undetermined wood chips, bark, and soil particles, was obtained from an “old pile” (just how old is not known) of sawmill residue. To determine how this sample would function in a nursery bark/sand mix, tests were run on its physical properties of pore space and water-holding capacity. The sawmill residue had the following characteristics: a mean 44.2% porosity capacity, 23.4% air space, and 20.8% water holding capacity. A standard fertilizer and lime amendment package was added to the sawmill residue in the same rates as a regular nursery mix. The sawmill residue and the standard nursery mix were then blended according to the treatment percentages. The treatments were sawmill residue/standard nursery mix 0/100, 10/90, 30/70, 60/40, and 100/0. The Ilex crenata `Compacta' liners were planted into standard 1-gallon nursery pots filling to just below the rim. The pots were randomly placed on a well-drained rock surface in full sun. No additional fertilizer was used and watering was done as needed. Plants were grown for 1 year. Visual assessments were made throughout the growing period and at harvest. There was no visible difference in any of the treatments as far as overall growth was discerned. The plants were of uniform height and width showing consistent, even growth and good leaf color. Root system growth and development were evaluated visually and over all treatments were uniformly good. No root problems were noted. There was not any plant loss in any treatment over the entire study. Each plant was cut at the soil line and dried for 24 hours at 1150 °C. Dry weights were taken after the plant material had cooled for 4 hours. Results were based on four plants per treatment times four replications for a total of 16 plants per treatment. There was not any measurable growth difference in dry weight among treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4 [sawmill residue/standard nursery mix 0/100 (41.03 g dry weight), 10/90 (39.83 g dry weight), 30/70 (38.98 g dry weight), 60/40 (37.42 g dry weight)]. However, treatment 5 [100/0 (31.03 g dry weight)] was significantly lower when compared to the remaining four treatments. The lower dry weight may be attributed to the 100% sawmill residue being too heavy and not well-drained enough. However, the roots did not show any damage from being too wet. Further work is being done with the sawmill residue.

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Jerusalem artichokes are one of a small number of crops that store carbon predominately in the form of inulin, a straight chain fructosan. There has been a tremendous increase in interest in inulin due to its dietary health benefits for humans and calorie replacement potential in processed foods. We measured the allocation of dry matter within the crop (cv. Sunckoke) during an entire growth cycle by harvesting plants over a 40-week period (2-week intervals) from initial planting through field storage. Plant characters assessed were: no. of basal stems, leaves, branches, flowers, and tubers; the dry weight of leaves, branches, flowers, tubers, and fibrous roots; and date of flowering. Total dry weight of above-ground plant parts increased until 18 weeks after planting (22 Aug.) and then progressively decreased thereafter. Tuber dry weight began to increase rapidly ≈4 weeks (19 Sept.) after the peak in above-ground dry weight, suggesting that dry matter within the aerial portion of the plant was being recycled into the storage organs. Tuber dry weight continued to increase during the latter part of the growing season, even after the first frost. Final tuber yield was 13.6 MT of dry matter/ha.

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Flavor is a primary trait in the selection of foods. The role of flavor in acceptance of the sweetpotato, flavors status as a selection trait in existing breeding programs, and our current understanding of the flavor chemistry of the sweetpotato was reviewed. The sweetpotato, unlike most staple crops, has a very distinct and dominant flavor. In typical breeding programs, however, flavor is generally one of the last traits screened. A tremendous diversity and range of flavors has been reported within the sweetpotato germplasm (e.g., acidic, bland, baked potato, boiled potato. carrot, chalky, chemical, citrus, earthy, Ipomoeo/terpene, lemon, musty, pumpkin, salty, squash (titer type), starchy, sweet, sweetpotato (traditional), terpene, and turnip. These results indicate that the genetic diversity for flavor present in sweetpotato germplasm will allow making substantial changes in the flavor of new cultivars, thus potentially opening previously unexploited or under-exploited markets. Implementation involves solving two primary problems: 1) identification of desirable flavor ideotypes; and development of procedures that allow maximizing the selection of specific flavor types.

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The sweetpotato, unlike most vegetable crops, exhibits a vining growth habit where vertical development is sacrificed for rapid radial expansion. Considerable genetic diversity is present in vine length within the sweetpotato genepool. To test the relationship between the degree of vining (land area covered during the growing season) and yield, 5 vine length types (dwarf, bunch, normal, long and very long) were grafted on the same root stock (`Jewel'). At harvest, canopy diameter and area, root fwt and number, total vine length, and number of vines, leaves, missing leaves, nodes and flowers were determined as well as root, vine, leaf, petiole and flower dwt. Individual parameters were related to storage root development and harvest index. Total vine length ranged from 5.0m to 73.8m/plant, while vine number varied from 12.6 to 117.8 vines/plant. The total number of leaves/plant varied from 595 to 2680 while the percent leaf loss ranged from 17 to 38%. Root yield (fwt) was lowest for the dwarf vine type (593 g/plant) alnd highest for the longest vine type (2716 g/plant).

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Lagerstroemia indica ×fauriei `Tonto' and `Sioux' were planted in Mar. 1995. All other cultivars were planted in Oct. 1985. Plants were planted into a Ruston sandy loam on a 12 × 12 ft (3.7 × 3.7 m) spacing. Trees were pruned to develop multiple trunks. Trees are pruned annually in winter to remove any limbs smaller than 0.6 cm in diameter. Pruning cuts are made 6–8 in (15.2–20.3 cm) above prior cuts. Severe pruning is performed every 5 years. Trees were evaluated at 2-week intervals during the flowering season to determine total length of flowering and duration of good to superior flowering. Growth indices (height + width + perpendicular width)/3 were recorded after plants were dormant. Total days of flowering and floral display (0–5 with 0 representing no flowers and 5 representing superior flowering) were rated. `Muskogee' had the greatest growth index after the 2004 growing season. `Seminole' had the least. However, `Seminole' had the greatest number of flowering days. `Biloxi' had the fewest flowering days. `Tonto' had the most good to superior flowering days, while `Tuskegee' and `Muskogee' had the fewest. In 2005, `Muskogee' again had the greatest growth index, while `Sioux' had the least. `Yuma' and `Seminole' had the greatest number of flowering days, and `Biloxi' again had the fewest. `Tonto' again had the most good to superior flowering days, while `Biloxi' and `Acoma' had the fewest.

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Lagerstroemia indica x fauriei `Tonto' and `Sioux' were planted in March, 1995. All other cultivars were planted in October, 1985. Plants were planted into a Ruston sandy loam on a 12 × 12 ft (3.7 × 3.7 m) spacing. Trees were pruned to develop multiple trunks. Trees are pruned annually in winter to remove any limbs smaller than ¼ in (0.6 cm) in diameter. Pruning cuts are made 6–8 in (15.2–20.3 cm) above prior cuts. Severe pruning is performed every five years. Trees were evaluated at 2-week intervals during the flowering season to determine total length of flowering and duration of good to superior flowering. Growth indices (height + width + perpendicular width)/3 were recorded after plants were dormant. Total days of flowering and floral display (0–5 with 0 representing no flowers and 5 representing superior flowering) were rated. `Muskogee' had the greatest growth index after the 2004 growing season. `Seminole' had the least. However, `Seminole' did have the greatest number of flowering days. `Biloxi' had the fewest flowering days. `Tonto' had the most good to superior flowering days while `Tuskegee' and `Muskogee' had the fewest.

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A list of the consumer horticulture publications available from the cooperative extension service of each state was compiled. This list was prepared under the auspices of the ASHS Extension Consumer Horticulture Working Group and will be available for distribution. This list includes extension publications, leaflets and other extension materials appropriate for continuing education programs in consumer horticulture.

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Four bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars were evaluated for yield (total weight of marketable fruit) performance over 41 environments as combinations of 3 years, three planting dates, and seven locations across North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Cultural practices, including trickle irrigation and double rows planted on black-plastic-covered beds, were uniform across all environments, except for fertilization, which was adjusted at each location based on soil tests. Comparing production over 3 years between the mountain location and the Coastal Plain location in North Carolina, yields were lower on the Coastal Plain. Spring plantings provided higher yields than summer plantings at both locations. Yield increases were obtained from hybrid cultivars over that of the open-pollinated (OP) standard [`Keystone Resistant Giant #3' (KRG#3)] in the summer planting in the mountains compared to the Tidewater Coastal Plain. Across the three-state region, hybrid cultivar yields were higher than those of the OP cultivar for the second spring planting date in 1986 and 1987. Although the hybrid yields were higher than that of the OP standard, the hybrid `Skipper' yielded less than the other hybrids (`Gator Belle' and `Hybelle'). `Gator Belle' generally out-yielded `Hybelle' at all locations, except in Fletcher, N.C. This difference may be related to the relative sensitivity of these two cultivars to temperature extremes, rather than soil or geographic factors, because there was a tendency for `Hybelle' yields to exceed `Gator Belle' in the earliest planting date. Based on the reliability index, the chance of outperforming KRG#3 (the standard) was 85% for `Hybelle', 80% for `Gator Belle', but only 67% for `Skipper'.

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