Cowpea is a leguminous and versatile crop which provides nutritional food for human consumption. However, salinity unfavorably reduces cowpea seed germination, thus significantly decreasing cowpea production. Little has been done for evaluating and developing salt-tolerant cowpea genotypes at germination stage. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the response of cowpea genotypes to salinity stress through seed germination rate and to select salt-tolerant cowpea genotypes. The seed germination rates under nonsalt condition and salinity stress (150 mm NaCl) were evaluated in 151 cowpea genotypes. Four parameters, absolute decrease (AD), the inhibition index (II), the relative salt tolerance (RST), and the salt tolerance index (STI) were used to measure salt tolerance in cowpea. The results showed that there were significant differences among the 151 cowpea genotypes for all parameters (P values <0.0001). The AD in germination rate was 5.8% to 94.2%; the II varied from 7.7% to 100%; the RST ranged from 0 to 0.92; and STI varied from 0 to 0.92. A high broad sense heritability (H2) was observed for all four parameters. High correlation coefficients (r) were estimated among the four parameters. PI582422, 09–529, PI293584, and PI582570 were highly salt tolerant at germination stage. In addition, genotypes from the Caribbean and Southern Asia exhibited better tolerance to salinity, whereas those from Europe and North America were the most salt-susceptible.