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  • Author or Editor: Tommy Thompson x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Putative resistance to the blackmargined aphid (Monellia caryella Fitch) in `Pawnee' pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] was first noted in greenhouse tests by rating cultivars for relative amounts of honeydew on adaxial leaf surfaces. This resistance was confirmed in two field tests monitored from mid-June to mid-October. `Pawnee' supported significantly lower aphid populations during every rating period when relatively large numbers of these insects were present. `Navaho' also showed resistance, with `Desirable' having intermediate resistance and `Stuart' being very susceptible. Insect populations were also monitored on the four quadrants of each tree, with quadrant effect being significant in only one test. This test had the highest populations on the western quadrant and lowest populations on the eastern quadrant. In determining individual clone resistance, it is recommended that the general orchard aphid infestation level be determined so that only two or three well-timed clonal ratings are needed. We also recommend that all sides of the tree be monitored.

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The Munsell Color System was used to define pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] kernel colors and color changes for 21 clones, 11 locations, and 4 storage methods for nuts collected over a 4-year period. Hue readings ranged from 10.0 (10 red) to 22.5 (2.5 yellow). Value readings ranged from 2.5 to 8.0, and chroma readings ranged from 1.0 to 8.0. A total of 91 color chips (individual combinations of hue, value, and chroma) were needed to describe kernel color variability. In 1987 and 1988, one color [15.0/5/4 (hue/value/chroma)] accounted for 3,979 of the 32,078 readings taken, and the 15 most common colors accounted for 80.7% of all the readings. The Munsell system of color determination was well suited for pecan color determinations. A simplified color rating system with only six color classes was developed for general use by the pecan industry. This system is also routinely used in our breeding and genetics program to define this very important quality trait in pecan.

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A microsatellite-enriched library was developed from `Halbert', a native pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] selection from Coleman County, Texas. A genomic library enriched for simple sequence repeats (SSR) containing 6144 clones was archived in 384 well plates for screening. In total, 439 clones were identified after Southern hybridization using di- and tri-nucleotide repeats as probes. In total, 125 positive clones were sequenced and primers were designed for 24 repeats. The SSR markers chosen for analysis include di-(CT and GA) and tri-nucleotide repeats (CTT, GAA and GAT). Of the 24 primer pairs tested, 19 successfully amplified microsatellites from `Halbert'. DNA was isolated from 48 pecan and hickory accessions selected to strategically represent the genetic diversity of the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) Carya collections. The 19 SSR primers that produced good amplification products in `Halbert' were used to evaluate the collection, with 11 revealing polymorphism. The number of fragments amplified with different primer combinations ranged from 4 to 32 in the 48 genotypes tested. Evaluation of the data confirms the utility of the microsatellites in delimiting known relationships.

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More than 170 pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars were evaluated formalate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphoglucomutase, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), and diaphorase (DIA). Isozymes of LAP were observed in two regions after starch gel electrophoresis. The faster region of activity (Lap-1) was polymorphic and consistently expressed in leaves, wood, and roots. Controlled crosses suggest that Lap-1 is simply inherited and controlled by at least two alleles. DIA was well resolved and storable only from leaf material and produced a complex banding pattern. The ability to differentiate among cultivars by isozymes was good. The 177 cultivars sorted into 72 classes. Forty of the cultivars (23%) possessed a unique series of isozyme patterns. Most cultivars (124 of 177) shared common banding patterns with less than four other cultivars. From the inheritance models of four isozymes, some historical pedigrees can be questioned. Most notably,' Western Schley' could not have been parented by `San Saba' based on the inheritance of Mdh-1 and Lap-1.

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