Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Timothy M. Spann* x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
Clear All Modify Search

Experiments were conducted with `Misty' southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrid) to test the effects of high temperature on flower bud initiation and carbohydrate accumulation and partitioning. Plants were grown under inductive short days (SDs = 8 hour photoperiod) or noninductive SDs with night interrupt (SD-NI = 8 hour photoperiod + 1 hour night interrupt), at either 21 or 28 °C for either 4 or 8 weeks. Flower bud initiation occurred only in the inductive SD treatments and was significantly reduced at 28 °C compared with 21 °C. The number of flower buds initiated was not significantly different between 4- and 8-week durations within the inductive SD, 21 °C treatment. However, floral differentiation appeared to be incomplete in the 4-week duration buds and bloom was delayed and reduced. Although plant carbohydrate status was not associated with differences in flower bud initiation between SD and SD-NI treatments, within SD plants, decreased flower bud initiation at high temperature was correlated with decreased whole-plant carbohydrate concentration. These data indicate that flower bud initiation in southern highbush blueberry is a SD/long night phytochrome-mediated response, and plant carbohydrate status plays little, if any, role in regulating initiation under these experimental conditions.

Free access

Asian citrus psyllid [ACP (Diaphorina citri)] is an important pest of citrus (Citrus sp.) in many citrus-growing regions of the world because of its status as the vector of huanglongbing disease [HLB (citrus greening)]. There are currently no HLB-resistant citrus genotypes and no proven treatments for the disease; thus, vector control through the use of frequent prophylactic pesticide applications is key to managing the spread of this disease. However, this practice is unsustainable and other means of altering ACP biology or reducing populations are needed. To this end, six plant growth regulators (PGRs) were tested to determine their effect on citrus tree vegetative growth and the subsequent impact on the biology of ACP. In greenhouse and growth chamber experiments, ACP reared on trees treated with prohexadione calcium and mefluidide exhibited significant reductions in both fecundity and survivorship, whereas uniconazole affected only fecundity and paclobutrazol affected only survivorship. No significant effects of PGRs on adult ACP weight were observed except on uniconazole-treated trees. No eggs were laid on dikegulac sodium-treated trees; however, this was likely the result of severe phytotoxicity rather than a true PGR effect. Oviposition rate was lower on all the PGR-treated trees, except chlormequat chloride under greenhouse conditions, compared with untreated control trees. In general, oviposition was delayed on PGR-treated trees compared with untreated controls. The observed changes in ACP biology and behavior after PGR treatment were not the result of a reduction in the number of suitable oviposition sites (i.e., growth reduction) or toxicity of the PGRs to ACP, suggesting there were PGR-induced plant biochemical changes that altered host plant quality. Leaf nutrient analyses and photosynthesis indicated that there were no correlative changes in plant nutrient status or carbon assimilation that led to the changes in ACP behavior, although it is possible that phloem-specific nutrient or carbohydrate changes could have occurred that were not detected in our whole-leaf analyses. These results support previous studies in which the fitness of various insect species has been affected by PGR applications, but more research is needed to understand the changes in plant chemistry that are responsible.

Free access