Potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum `Russet Burbank') were stored at 1 °C in air for 28 days and then transferred to 10 °C in either air or 2.53 kPa O2. During cold storage there was an increase in sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The activities of extractable sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and invertase increased by 2.2- and 7.7-fold, respectively, during 28 days at 1 °C. The activity of sucrose synthase (SS) remained constant at 1 °C and was similar to that found in tubers kept continuously at 10 °C. With the transfer of tubers from 1 to 10 °C, there was an initial sharp rise in respiration which peaked at ≈7 days, followed by a gradual decline. Sucrose declined rapidly during reconditioning, while glucose and fructose declined more slowly. With the transfer of tubers from 1 to 10 °C, the activity of SS increased sharply after 7 days at 10 °C, to be followed by a decline to the levels found in control tubers. The activities of both extractable SPS and invertase decreased during reconditioning, reaching the values of the control tubers within ≈15 days. Low O2 inhibited the decrease in sugars and suppressed the rise in SS activity, but it did not alter the decrease in SPS and invertase. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of SPS protein remained unchanged at 1 and 10 °C. These results indicate that the activity of SPS is regulated by factors other than the amount of its protein. The activities of the above three enzymes showed no changes in tubers kept at 10 °C continuously. In control tubers SPS showed the highest activity, followed by SS and invertase.
Treating `Elliott's White' cut carnations with 50 or 100 mm aminotriazole for 4 days inhibits the respiratory climacteric and significantly extends vase life. Aminotriazole induced time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of ethylene evolution and onset of the ethylene climacteric by inhibiting ACC synthase activity. Flowers treated with 50 or 100 mm aminotriazole for 2 days exhibited concentration-dependent increases in ethylene evolution, respiratory activity, ACC synthase activity, and petal ACC content in response to the application of exogenous ethylene at 10 μl·liter-1. Senescence-associated morphological changes, increased ACC synthase activity, ACC content, and ethylene evolution were completely inhibited in flowers treated for 4 days with 100 mm aminotriazole. Although treatment with 50 mm aminotriazole for 4 days did not completely inhibit components of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, no morphological or respiratory responses to the application of exogenous ethylene at 10 μl·liter-1 were observed, a result indicating that prolonged aminotriazole treatment inhibited ethylene action. Chemical names used: 3-1H-amino-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl (aminotriazole), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC).
The diffusion coefficient of CO2 in `Russet Burbank' potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers was determined under steady-state conditions at 10 and 27C. The data showed that the skin is the main barrier to gas diffusion, with an average diffusion coefficient of 6.57 × 10-7 and 7.61 × 10-7 cm·s-1 at 10 and 27C, respectively. The flesh also presents an appreciable barrier to gas diffusion. The average diffusion coefficient of CO2 in the flesh was 2.00 × 10-4 and 2.24 × 10-4 cm·s-1 at 10 and 27C, respectively. Under regular storage conditions, the tuber is well aerated and the concentration of O2 at the center of the tuber is sufficient to maintain aerobic respiration.
Postharvest flower fresh weight of Zinnia elegans Jacq. increased when held in solutions containing 200 mg liter-1 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC) and sucrose and decreased when held in deionized water. Ethylene biosynthesis was enhanced by holding flowers in solutions of 8-HQC + 1, 2% or 3% sucrose compared with deionized water where ethylene release was low initially and remained low. Carbon dioxide evolution declined sharply the first 2 days postharvest and remained low for flowers held in deionized water, but remained at initial levels for those held in 200 mg liter-1 8-HQC + 3% sucrose. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose in ray florets declined to levels barely detectable if flowers were held in deionized water but increased if held in 200 mg liter-1 8-HQC + 3% sucrose. The induction of ethylene biogenesis may be an injury response caused by sucrose.
Respiration of flower-buds of Pyrus communis L., a late blooming species, and P. calleryana, an early blooming species, was investigated throughout the winter. Respiration of P. calleryana Decne at 5°C was twice as high as that of P. communis, whereas the respiration rates were similar at 25°. A large portion (60–70%) of the respiration at 5° was cyanide resistant in P. calleryana and much less in P. communis. The combination of inhibitors, cyanide (KCN) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), still only partially inhibited respiration. The residual respiration was much higher for P. calleryana than for P. communis. The nature of the residual respiration is not known.