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  • Author or Editor: T. G. McCollum x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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The effects of gene B on susceptibility to chilling injury (CI) in two types of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) were investigated. Two pairs of near-isogenic lines with (BB) and without (B+ B+) gene B were included in the study: `Caserta' (B+ B+) and `Precocious Caserta' (BB) of the vegetable marrow type, and `Benning's Green Tint' (B+ B+) and `Benning's Yellow Tint' (BB) of the scallop type. Respiration and ethylene evolution at nonchilling temperature were consistently higher in marrows than in scallops. Gene B had no influence on respiratory rates at nonchilling temperatures; however, the presence of gene B enhanced the chilling-induced stimulation of respiration in both marrows and scallops. Temporal differences in the patterns of chilling-induced stimulation of ethylene evolution indicated a greater sensitivity to chilling in marrows than in scallops and in both types in the presence of gene B. Electrolyte leakage was decreased by storage at chilling temperature in both marrow genotypes and was not influenced by storage temperature in B+ B+ scallops, but was increased by storage at chilling temperature in BB scallops. Therefore, electrolyte leakage was not a good CI index for these summer squash.

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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of prestorage heat treatments on chilling tolerance of tomatoes. Mature-green `Agriset' tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), either C2H4-treated or not, were immersed in 42C water for 60 min, held in 38C air for 48 hours, or not treated, and then stored at either 2C (chilled) or 13C (nonchilled) for 14 days before ripening at 20C. Heat-treated fruit stored at 2C and transferred to 20C ripened normally while nonheated fruit decayed before reaching red ripe. Color (a*/b* ratio), lycopene content, and internal quality characteristics of fruit were similar at the red-ripe stage irrespective of method of heat treatment. In red-ripe heat-treated fruit, free sterol levels were significantly higher in chilled fruit than in nonchilled fruit. Heating fruit in 38C air resulted in significantly higher levels of some free sterols compared with heating fruit in 42C water. Of the 15 flavor volatiles analyzed, six showed significantly decreased concentrations as a result of C2H4-treatment and seven showed decreased concentrations when stored at 2C before ripening. Some volatiles were decreased by the heat treatments. Prestorage short- and long-term heat treatments could allow for storage of mature-green tomatoes at lower temperatures with little loss of their ability to ripen normally.

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Mature-green `Sunbeam' tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were treated in varying order with C2H4, 42 °C water for 1 hour, 38 °C air for 2days, held 2 days at 20 °C (partial ripening), or not treated and then stored at 2 °C (chilled) for 14 days before ripening at 20 °C. Heat-treated fruit stored at 2 °C and transferred to 20 °C ripened normally, while 63% of nonheated fruit decayed before reaching the red-ripe stage. Partially ripened fruit developed more chilling injury, were firmer, were lighter, and were less red in color than fruit not partially ripened. Lycopene content and internal quality characteristics of fruit were similar at the red-ripe stage irrespective of sequence of C2H4 exposure, heat treatment, or a partial ripening period. Of the 15 flavor volatiles analyzed, 10 were reduced by storage at 2 °C, Exposure to C2H4 before the air heat treatment reduced the levels of four volatiles, while C2H4 application either before or after the water heat treatment had no effect on flavor volatiles. Two volatiles were decreased and two were increased by partial vipening, Storage at 2 °C decreased the level of cholesterol and increased levels of campesterol and isofucosterol in the free sterol pool. Exposure to C2H4 before or following heat treatments, the method of heat treatment, and partial ripening had little effect on free sterols, steryl esters, steryl glycosides, or acylated steryl glycosides in the pericarp of red-ripe fruit. A shortor long-term heat treatment of mature-green tomatoes could permit storage at low temperatures with little loss in their ability to ripen normally, whereas partial ripening did not reduce chilling injury.

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Irradiation is being evaluated as a quarantine treatment of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. `Marsh'), but it can cause damage to the fruit. Research was conducted to determine if preirradiation heat treatments would improve fruit tolerance to irradiation as they improve tolerance to low temperature injury and to determine if canopy position influenced fruit tolerance to irradiation. Initially, grapefruit were irradiated at 0 or 2.0 kGy at a dose rate of 0.14 kGy·min-1 and selected biochemical changes were monitored over time. There was a marked increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity following irradiation. Maximum activity (≈18-fold increase) was attained 24 hours after irradiation. Subsequently, grapefruit were harvested from interior and exterior canopy positions and irradiated at 0 or 1.0 kGy at a dose rate of 0.15 kGy·min-1 before storage for 4 weeks at 10 °C. Following storage, pitting of flavedo was the most evident condition defect noted as a result of irradiation. Pitting was observed on 27% and 15% of irradiated exterior and interior canopy fruit, respectively, whereas there was no pitting on nonirradiated fruit. Heat treatment before irradiation decreased susceptibility of fruit to damage. Pitting was 26%, 19%, and 17% when fruit were held 2 hours at 20 (ambient), 38 or 42 °C, respectively. Irradiation-induced PAL activity was reduced by temperature conditioning at 38 or 42 °C. Exterior canopy fruit flavedo contained higher levels of total phenols, including flavanols and coumarins compared with interior canopy fruit. Deposition of lignin was not related to canopy position. Neither irradiation nor heat treatment had an effect on total phenols or lignin deposition. Generally, cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and isofucosterol were found to be higher in four steryl lipid fractions in exterior canopy fruit compared with interior canopy fruit. Irradiation increased campesterol in the free sterol and steryl glycoside fractions and decreased isofucosterol in the free sterol fraction. Heat treatments had no effect on individual sterol levels. It seems that irradiation causes a stress condition in the fruit, which leads to pitting of peel tissue. Heat treatment before irradiation reduced damaging effects of irradiation.

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Abstract

The birdsnest plant type in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) is characterized by short internodes, weak apical dominance, and concentrated yield. Flowering, fruit set, and fruit development in a birdsnest-type were examined and compared with those characters in a vine-type muskmelon to understand how the concentration of yield is achieved. A muskmelon breeding line with the birdsnest habit, D26, was compared with ‘Noy Yizre'el (NY), a vine-type cultivar. Results of a greenhouse and field study indicated that the two genotypes had similar patterns of perfect flowering; however, D26 set a greater number of fruit than NY. The pattern of fruit set and fruit maturity (yield) was more concentrated in D26 than in NY. First-set fruit had an inhibitory effect on the development of later-set fruit in NY, but this effect was not apparent with D26. NY fruit were larger in size and had higher soluble solids than D26 fruit. The concentrated fruit set and yield of birdsnest-type plants suggests a more equal partitioning of assimilates to young, developing fruit than in vine-type plants.

Open Access

Abstract

Changes in soluble sugar composition of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) mesocarp were followed throughout fruit development. Glucose and fructose, in nearly equal amounts, were the predominant sugars detected during the first 24 days after anthesis. Sucrose began to accumulate 24 days after anthesis and was the predominant sugar present in the ripe fruit. A soluble acid invertase (pH optimum 4.0 to 5.0) was detected in mesocarp extracts. Activity of acid invertase was highest in the young fruit and declined with development. Sucrose synthase activity was also detected in mesocarp extracts. Sucrose synthase activity increased between 18 and 24 days after anthesis and thereafter remained constant. Acid invertase and sucrose synthase appeared to be involved in the metabolism of sucrose during muskmelon fruit development.

Open Access

Abstract

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of carrots (Daucus carota L.) to target plant densities of 39, 59, and 79 plants per meter of band with various row arrangements (2 band/bed with 2, 3, or 4 seeded rows/band with 3.8 to 11.4 cm between rows) on a Landerhill muck soil. Marketable and total carrot yields increased linearly with increased plant density from 24 to 85 plants per square meter. In 2 of 3 experiments, row arrangement significantly influenced yield; greatest yields were obtained when spacing between rows in a band was greater than 3.8 cm, indicating some advantage to increasing the distance between rows. Mean length and diameter of marketable roots decreased linearly with increased plant density. Length and diameter of marketable carrots were influenced by row arrangement in one of the 3 experiments. Carrots grown in rows spaced more than 3.8 cm apart were longer and had a greater diameter than did carrots grown with 3.8 cm between rows.

Open Access