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  • Author or Editor: Suman Singha x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

Shoot tips of ‘Almey’ crabapple [Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. × M. pumila var. niedzwetzkyana (Dieck) Schneid.] and ‘Secke!’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg/liter 6-benzylamino purine and agar levels ranging from 0 to 1.2%. The greatest shoot proliferation and shoot growth in ‘Almey’ occurred on medium containing 0.3% agar. Higher agar concentrations decreased both shoot proliferation and shoot growth. Increasing agar concentrations resulted in decreased shoot growth in ‘Seckel’, but shoot proliferation was significantly greater at concentrations of 0.6% and higher as compared to 0.3% or lower. Autoclaving caused an acidification of the medium. The addition of agar reduced media acidification. This pH variation does not explain the effect of agar on shoot proliferation and growth.

Open Access

Abstract

Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited bud break and shoot elongation in seedling stem explants of apple (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Northern Spy) cultured in vitro. Inhibition was complete in culture medium containing 100 μM ABA. Transfer of buds from ABA-containing medium to basal medium resulted in increases in both bud break and shoot elongation. ABA levels in such buds declined rapidly following transfer, and growth began when ABA concentration in the buds dropped below a threshold value.

Open Access

Abstract

Shoot tips of ‘Almey’ crabapple [Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. × M. pumila var. Niedzwetzkyana (Dieck) Schneid.] and ‘Seckel’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 8.8 µm BA. Media were solidified with either Bacto-agar, Phytagar, or TC agar at concentrations varying from 0.3% to 1.2%. Explant nutrient levels were influenced both by agar brand and concentration. The trends in nutrient composition, although not identical, tended to be similar for both genera. Increasing agar concentrations resulted in increased P, Fe, Zn, and Al in the explant and reduced Ca, Mg, and Mn levels. Although striking variations in many elements occur both in agar brands and in explants cultured on media containing similar concentrations of different agar brands, variations in shoot proliferation and growth of explants cannot be explained on the basis of variations in individual elements. From the nutritional standpoint, the alterations in the elemental composition of the basal medium by the addition of specific agars best explain variations induced by different agar brands. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (BA).

Open Access

Fruit of 10 `Delicious' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) strains were harvested 149 days after full bloom in 1988. Fruit color was measured at four locations on each fruit at the midpoint between the stem and calyx end with a Minolta CR-200b portable tristimulus calorimeter. Anthocyanin content of corresponding skin disks was determined spectrophotometrically. Significant differences existed among strains in both the amount and distribution of anthocyanin around the fruit. High-coloring strains had a significantly higher anthocyanin concentration at both the blushed and the nonblushed surface when compared to low-coloring strains. A linear regression of anthocyanin content on the ratio of (a*/b*)2 provided an R2 = 0.59; precision was enhanced by using a separate equation for each strain (R2 = 0.80). Regressing log (anthocyanin) on L* using two linear splines yielded an R2 = 0.78. These relationships allow the use of a portable calorimeter for rapid, nondestructive estimation of fruit anthocyanin content in situ.

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