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  • Author or Editor: Shirong Guo x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous signaling molecule in plants and animals, mediates responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. This study was conducted in a nutrient solution to investigate 1) the effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, on free proline (Pro) and protein content; and 2) the enzymes involved in Pro metabolism [pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and proline dehydrogenase (PDH)] in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedling leaves and roots under NaCl stress. The results showed that the increases in free Pro and protein were significantly higher in the 50 mm NaCl solution but highly significant with the addition of 100 μM SNP to the 50 mm NaCl solution for the entire treatment period. Moreover, leaves maintained higher levels of free Pro and protein content than roots throughout the experiments. The P5CS activity increased in the saline treatment compared with the control, and this increase was greater in the 50 mm NaCl + 100 μM SNP solution than in the other treatments. On the other hand, the PDH activity was inhibited under NaCl stress but the reduction in activity was greater in the 50 mm NaCl + 100 μM SNP solution than in the others. These findings suggest that Pro metabolism was significantly altered during the exogenously applied NO under salt stress and that this alteration prompted the accumulation of higher levels of free Pro, which, in turn, maintained the turgor in the cucumber seedlings and helped protect them from salt stress. Moreover, the toxic effects generated by 50 mm NaCl were partially overcome by the application of NO, which could be used as a potential growth regulator to improve plant salinity tolerance. Therefore, it was concluded that NO could alleviate salinity damage in cucumber seedlings by regulating Pro metabolism. Overall, the adverse effects of salt stress could be lessened by the exogenous application of NO to cucumber seedlings.

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To examine whether 1 mm of spermidine (Spd) modifies plant ethylene production in response to short-term salt stress, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings were grown in nutrient solution with or without 75 mm NaCl stress for 3 days, and the leaves were sprayed with 1 mm Spd or water (control). We investigate the effects of the treatments on ethylene production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) content, 1-(malonylamino) cycolpvopane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC) content, activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) and gene expression of acs2, aco1, and aco2 in the cucumber leaves. The results indicate that ethylene production was increased significantly under salt stress as did ACC and MACC content, the activities of ACS and ACO, and the transcriptional level of acs2, whereas the gene expression of aco1 and aco2 was somewhat decreased. However, exogenous Spd treatment depressed the content of ACC and MACC, ACS activity, and the level of acs2 transcripts in the leaves of salt-stressed cucumber. Although the activity of ACO and gene expressions of aco1 and aco2 increased by Spd, ethylene emission was inhibited. Our results suggest that application of exogenous Spd could reverse salinity-induced ethylene production by inhibiting the transcription and activity of ACS under salt stress. We conclude that exogenous Spd could modify the biosynthesis of ethylene to enhance the tolerance of cucumber seedlings to salt stress.

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The use of grafted seedlings in vegetable crops has increased in recent years to enhance the resistance to biological and abiotic stresses, and improve yields. However, incompatibility restricts the wide application of grafting. In this study, two pumpkin (Cucurbita) cultivars, with great differences in grafting affinity and symbiotic affinity, were used as rootstocks and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings were used as the scion. The effects of compatibility or incompatibility on histological aspects, antioxidant enzyme activities, phenylpropanoid contents, and chlorophyll fluorescence were studied. The results showed that compatible graft combinations present a stronger resistance to the oxidative damage resulting from grafting and had relatively weak phenylpropanoid metabolisms. The results also indicated that the chlorophyll fluorescence levels of incompatible combinations were lower, except compared with the original fluorescence. Finally, a necrotic layer existed earlier in compatible graft combinations. These differences at the morphological, physiological, and cellular levels may govern compatibility and incompatibility, and may provide valuable information for determining the symbiotic affinity of grafted seedlings at an early stage.

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Heat tolerance is considered to be an essential feature for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) production, and it has been suggested that higher antioxidant ability could prevent the oxidative damage in plants caused by high-temperature stress. We aimed to investigate whether the application of exogenous spermidine (Spd) increases antioxidant activities and, therefore, elevates the heat tolerance of cucumber. Cucumber seedlings (cv. Jinchun No. 4) showing moderate heat tolerance were grown in climate chambers to investigate the effects of exogenous Spd (1 mm) foliar spray treatment on the activities and isozyme levels of antioxidative enzymes under both high-temperature stress 42/32 °C (day/night) and normal temperature 28/18 °C (day/night). On high-temperature stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were significantly reduced; the catalase activity was initially lower and then increased, whereas the peroxidase activity was initially higher and then decreased. The levels of these isozymes also changed differently. On treatment with exogenous Spd, the activities of these antioxidant enzymes were noticeably enhanced, and the isozyme zymogram expression had some changes. It was concluded that foliar spray with Spd effectively improved the total antioxidant ability of cucumber seedlings and, therefore, enhanced the tolerance of the plants to high-temperature stress.

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We investigated the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the carbohydrate, nitrogen (N), and endogenous polyamine status of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings exposed to high-temperature stress [38/28 °C (day/night)]. High-temperature stress reduced the contents of pyruvate and succinate and inhibited plant growth. The application of exogenous Spd alleviated the inhibition of plant growth induced by high temperature, and also led to an increase in pyruvate, citrate, and succinate levels. High temperature markedly increased the NH4 +-N content and reduced the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Spd significantly alleviated the negative effects on NH4 +-N assimilation induced by high-temperature stress. Moreover, Spd significantly increased the activities of NR and GDH in the high-temperature-stressed tomato leaves. In contrast, Spd application to high-temperature-stressed plant leaves counteracted high-temperature-induced mRNA expression changes in N metabolism. Spd significantly upregulated the transcriptional levels of NR, nitrite reductase, GS, GDH, and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). In addition, exogenous Spd significantly increased endogenous polyamines. These results suggest that Spd could improve carbohydrate and N status through regulating the gene expression and activity of key enzymes for N metabolism, thus confers the tolerance to high temperature on tomato seedlings.

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