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  • Author or Editor: Sha Liu x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Naturally derived products that may enhance the functionality of fertilizers or other agricultural inputs are needed to reduce inputs associated with stress damage and increase the sustainability of turfgrass management. Damage to high-value creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) turf areas caused by heat stress is a widespread problem. This study aimed to evaluate multiple, diverse treatments that may illicit antioxidant responses in plants, melatonin, rutin, and Si, when applied as foliar pretreatments to heat stress. Creeping bentgrass plants were grown in growth chambers at optimal (23 °C) or heat stress conditions (35 °C). Turfgrass quality, chlorophyll content, leaf electrolyte leakage, photochemical efficiency, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activity, and fatty acid content were measured to determine the effects of foliar treatments on heat stress responses. Melatonin, Si, and rutin were all found to improve some or all of the physiological parameters measured in the study, but only melatonin and Si reduced lipid peroxidation, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and altered fatty acid contents. Melatonin- and Si-treated plants had greater superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity and increased the content of the unsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid, in creeping bentgrass leaves during heat stress compared with controls. Rutin improved turf quality and reduced electrolyte leakage during heat stress, but the mechanism associated with these changes is unclear because no changes were found in antioxidant enzyme activities or fatty acids. Melatonin and Si treatment promoted antioxidant enzyme activity and linoleic acid content of leaves, which have been associated with the improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass plants.

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A shoot-tip necrosis in actively-growing shoot cultures of various species has been observed. Using 3 cultivars of Solatium tuberosum grown on media differing in Ca concentration (0.3, 3.0, and 30 mm Ca), typical necrosis was induced or suppressed. Potatoes at 0.3 mm contained about 0.1% Ca g1 dry weight of shoot and also showed the highest incidence of shoot-tip necrosis, ranging from 48% to 72%, depending on the cultivar. Potatoes grown at 3 or 30 mm Ca contained 0.5% or 3% Ca g−1 dry weight of shoot, respectively, and showed only 0% to 9% necrotic shoots, depending on cultivar. In addition to medium Ca content, Parafilm used as the vessel closure promoted shoot-tip necrosis, but increased levels of Ca in the medium tended to overcome the effect. Although cultivar differences in tissue content of other minerals were apparent, these were not associated with the shoot-tip necrosis problem. We conclude that shoot-tip necrosis is associated with a Ca deficiency in actively-growing shoot cultures.

Open Access