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  • Author or Editor: Samuel Salazar-García x
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Nance [Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) HBK.] is a tropical fruit cultivated along the coastal areas of Mexico. Nance consumption has increased due to its versatility, as it can be used as fresh fruit, refreshments, and alcoholic beverages and also for preparing fruit rolls, bottled drinks, jellies, syrup, ice cream, and cakes. However, the broad variation in fruit quality parameters, like juice acidity, total soluble solids, skin color, and size, seems to limit its use. Since fruit quality can be influenced by the parameter used, multivariate canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) was used to discriminate among nance selections. The objective of this study was to find the best quality indices using physical and chemical fruit characteristics from eight nance selections cultivated in the state of Nayarit, Mexico. Six physical and five chemical variables of fruit quality were studied to determine the relative contribution of each variable to the discrimination between nance selections. Two canonical discriminant functions (CDF1 and CDF2) explained >80% of the accumulated variation among nance selections. The total soluble solids (TSS) to titratable acidity (TA) ratio was dominant on the CDF1 (standardized canonical coefficient = 2.46), therefore, this ratio could be used as the best quality index to select nance fruit. The following TSS to TA values are proposed to classify the nance selections studied: a) 5.1 to 8 as sour fruit (Sour-small and Purple selections), b) 8.1 to 10 as sweet-sour fruit (Conical, Improved, Sweet-sour-1, Sweet-sour-2, and Sweet-sour-3 selections), and c) >10 as sweet fruit (Sangunga selection).

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Michoacán and Nayarit are, respectively, the largest and second largest avocado-producing states in Mexico. The main harvest of the ‘Hass’ avocado in both states is concentrated during November to December, which saturates the market and reduces the price of fruit and grower income. The goal of this research was to manipulate vegetative and reproductive growth of the ‘Hass’ avocado with properly timed foliar-applied plant bioregulators (PBRs) to shift the date of flowering and harvest to the period before or after the main harvest. Effects of canopy sprays of gibberellic acid (GA3) or prohexadione calcium (a gibberellic acid biosynthesis inhibitor) applied at different stages of tree phenology on inflorescence development, time of anthesis, date of legal maturity for harvest of ‘Hass’ avocado fruit, yield, and fruit size were quantified. No PBR treatment influenced the time of anthesis. A single or double foliar application of GA3 (50 mg·L−1) ≈4 months (July) before the expected date of main harvest (November) resulted in ‘Hass’ avocado fruit reaching legal maturity (mesocarp dry matter 21.5% or greater) 24.8 to 28.2 d earlier than those of untreated control trees with no negative effect on yield or fruit size.

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This research was carried out from 2004 to 2005 in two commercial ‘Hass’ avocado orchards cultivated under rainfed conditions in a hot subhumid climate of the state of Nayarit, Mexico. The objectives of this study were to: 1) establish the patterns in nutrient concentrations during the lifespan of winter and summer vegetative flush leaves; and 2) validate a methodology based on mathematical functions to identify the appropriate period for leaf sampling to diagnose plant nutrition in avocado considering its two major vegetative flushes. Leaf samples were taken monthly for each vegetative flush, starting when leaf length was 5 cm or greater and concluding at leaf abscission. Starting at vegetative budbreak, winter and summer leaves lived 12.5 and 7.8 months, respectively. Summer flush leaves grew faster and attained greater length than winter leaves. A mathematical model based on the concentration of macro- and micronutrients through the lifespan of avocado leaves was evaluated. This model was used to determine the period when nutrient concentrations became stable and, consequently, to identify the proper leaf sampling period. For the ‘Hass’ avocado in Nayarit, the period for sampling winter flush leaves corresponded to 6.6- to 7.9-month-old leaves (4 Sept. to 13 Oct.). For summer leaves the optimum period was shorter and occurred when leaves were 3.9 to 4.9 months old (5 Dec. to 5 Jan.). The procedure and sampling time obtained here should be tested in other regions.

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Several studies were undertaken in commercial nonirrigated `Hass' avocado orchards under the subhumid semiwarm subtropical climate of the state of Nayarit, Mexico, with the following objectives: 1) to determine the frequency and intensity of vegetative shoot flushes and their contribution to the production of floral shoots, 2) to quantify the effect of tree fruit load on the occurrence of vegetative shoot flushes during the year and the relationship between vegetative and reproductive shoot number during flowering, and 3) to determine the time when apical buds borne on the major vegetative shoot flushes reached irreversible commitment to flowering (floral determination) through the use of shoot defoliation and girdling. Data trees were selected in two orchards based on their current crop load. Four to five branches per tree were tagged, and the number and intensity of vegetative flushes that developed during 2 years, as well as the type of growth produced by apical buds of shoots of different ages, were recorded at the end of the winter bloom periods for two separate years, 1999 and 2001. In a separate experiment using a different set of trees, winter and summer flush shoots were defoliated (year 1) or defoliated and girdled (year 2) at different stages of bud development from September to January in each case. Four vegetative flushes occurred each year. The winter flush that emerged in Feb. 1998 made the greatest contribution to the 1999 winter bloom—76.5% of the shoots produced floral shoots. Contributions of the summer 1 (late July 1998), summer 2 (early Aug. 1998), and summer 3 (late Aug. 1998) flushes to flowering were intermediate. A total of 30.6%, 36.4%, and 19% of the shoots produced floral shoots respectively. All four vegetative flushes produced a similar number of vegetative shoots during winter bloom. Evaluation of the 2001 winter bloom for trees with high (>95 kg fruit/tree) and low (<70 kg fruit/tree) crops showed no effect of tree fruit load on the production of vegetative or floral shoots by winter or summer vegetative flushes. Irrespective of time of treatment (shoot defoliation and girdling) or shoot age, irreversible commitment to flowering of apical buds occurred by 15 Oct., and this stage was associated with an average of 27.5 chilling days (temperature, ≤19 °C) for both years. Buds irreversibly committed to flowering were closed and pointed, with partial senescence of bud scales. Anatomically, the buds showed a convex primary axis meristem and four secondary axis floral shoot meristems.

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In plants, secondary metabolites (SMs) have functions of both defense and adaptation to the environment in which they develop. In Mexico, ‘Hass’ avocado is cultivated in different climate types, so during its development, the fruit is exposed to extreme climatic factors, especially temperature and solar radiation. A recent study showed that the thickness and roughness of ‘Hass’ skin increased in the hottest climate. It is unknown how these factors affect the presence of SMs and lignin in the skin. The aim of this research was to quantify the concentration of total phenolic compounds (TPCs), chlorophylls, total carotenoids (TCARs), and lignin in the skin of ‘Hass’ avocado fruit over five developmental stages (S), based on fruit diameter [Olive (20–30 mm ø), S-I (35–45 mm ø), S-II (50–60 mm ø), S-III (60–70 mm ø) and Harvest (mesocarp dry matter ≥21.5%)], in three producing regions of Mexico: Nayarit (warm subhumid climate, elevation 1151 m), Jalisco (semiwarm, subhumid climate, elevation 2180 m), and Michoacán (temperate climate, elevation 1579 m). Both fruit developmental stage and producing region had a significant influence on the concentrations of SMs and lignin in the skin. During fruit development, the skin showed a decrease in the concentration of phenolic compounds (PCs) and an increase in the presence of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and lignin. The skin of fruit produced in regions with a semiwarm and temperate climate had higher production of lignin and PCs, as well as a lower concentration of chlorophylls.

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