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  • Author or Editor: S.M. McCarter x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

Six general-purpose fumigants applied by different methods were evaluated for control of the fungal-nematode complex on onion (Allium cepa L.) for transplant production. Most soil treatments improved plant vigor, size, uniformity, and yield, and these positive responses were correlated with reduced populations of soil-borne fungi and nematodes. Growth response and control of pathogens varied with the fumigant used and the method of application. Populations of Pythium spp. and Fusarium spp. were reduced with methyl bromide, methyl bromide-chloropicrin mixture, chloropicrin, DD-MENCS (Vorlex), metham (748 liters/ha, drenched) and Bunema (drenched). Metham (748 liters/ha, drenched or drenched and incorporated) controlled Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn. Complete control of root-knot nematodes was obtained with methyl bromide and methyl bromide-chloropicrin mixture and nearly complete control with chloropicrin and DD-MENCS.

Open Access

Abstract

The broadspectrum soil fumigants methyl bromide-chloropicrin (67-33%) gas mixture at 392 kg/ha, methyl bromide-chloropicrin (67-31%) gel at 246 kg/ha, DD-MENCS at 187 and 327 liters/ha, metham at 748 liters/ha, and the nematicides, phenamiphos at 9 kg/ha and ethylene dibromide (85%) at 56 liters/ha, were evaluated for soil pest control in vegetable transplant production. Methyl bromide-chloropicrin gas mixture and the 2 rates of DD-MENCS increased marketable transplant yields of pepper (Capsium annuum L.), tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group) by 1,235%, 118%, and 29%, respectively, over that of the nontreated. These treatments also increased the fresh weights of plants, reduced populations of Pythium spp., Fusarium spp., plant parasitic nematodes, and weeds. Metham and methyl bromidechloropicrin gel were generally less effective than methyl bromide-chloropicrin gas or DD-MENCS. Neither phenamiphos nor ethylene dibromide reduced root-galls on tomato below detectable levels nor improved the marketable yield of the 3 crops. Fall fumigation provided several advantages over spring fumigation.

Open Access