Friable embryogenic callus of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) was induced from root pith on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg 2,4-D and 1 mg KIN/liter. Optimal callus growth occurred on medium containing 1.5 mg dicamba/liter. Plants were regenerated on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs); the best PGR combination was 0.5 mg IBA and 0.1 mg NAA/liter. Chemical names used: (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D); 3,6-dichloro-o-anisenic acid (dicamba); 6-benzylaminopurine (BA); gibberellic acid (GA); indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); kinetin (KIN); and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).
Andrew S. Wang
Yan Wang and S.J. Kays
Breeding sweetpotatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] for improved flavor would be greatly facilitated by understanding the flavor chemistry of the crop. To ascertain the chemical composition of the aroma, an aroma extract of baked `Jewel' sweetpotatoes was obtained using a cold solvent trap system and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography olfactometry (GCO) using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). GC with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) revealed ≈60 compounds presented in the aroma extract, of which 48 were identified. Olfactory evaluation of the eluted compounds using GC with a thermal conductivity detector (GC-TCD) indicated the presence of 37 odor-active peaks in the aroma extract. Three compounds, phenylacetaldehyde (perfume), maltol (caramel), and methyl geranate (2,6-octadienoic acid, 3,7-dimethyl-, methyl ester) (sweet candy) possessed the highest flavor dilution (FD) values (1500) via AEDA. 2-Acetyl furan (baked potato), 2-pentyl furan (floral), 2-acetyl pyrrole (sweet, caramel), geraniol (sweet floral), and β-ionone (violet) had FD values of 1000. These compounds are thought to be the most potent odorants in baked `Jewel' sweetpotatoes. Additionally, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene, 2-furmethanol, benzaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furfural, linalool, isopulegone, n-decanal, 2,4-decadienal, octyl ketone, α-copaene, 4-decanolide, and one unidentified compound were also contributors to the aroma. There was not a character impact compound that comprised the basic baked sweetpotato aroma. The aroma appeared to be made up of a relatively complex mixture of compounds. Maillard and/or caramelization reactions, Strecker degradation of phenylalanine, lipid and carotenoid degradation, and the thermal release of glycosidically bound terpenes appear to be involved in the formation of the characteristic aroma of baked `Jewel' sweetpotatoes.
Shiow Y. Wang and Kim S. Lewers
Fruit of the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) are a good source of natural antioxidants, which play an important role in protecting human health. Antioxidant levels vary considerably among strawberry genotypes. The cultivated strawberry is a hybrid of two very different wild progenitor species: F. virginiana Mill. and F. chiloensis (L.) Mill. The progenitor species are valued by strawberry breeders as sources of novel traits, but have not been evaluated for antioxidant capacity or levels of antioxidant compounds. The objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the antioxidant contents and antioxidant activities in representatives of F. virginiana and F. chiloensis in comparison with representatives of the cultivated strawberry species (F. ×ananassa), 2) to determine which strawberry compounds are most closely correlated with antioxidant capacity among these three species, and 3) to identify wild strawberry genotypes with high antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds for use in cultivar development. Fruit of 19 accessions from each of the three species, cultivated strawberry plus the two progenitor species (F. ×ananassa, F. virginiana, and F. chiloensis), were evaluated for levels of antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), total phenolics, total anthocyanins, ellagic acid, quercetin 3-glucoside plus quercetin 3-glucuronide, kaempferol 3-glucoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, p-coumaryl–glucose, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside–succinate, cyanidin 3-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside–succinate. Fruit of the 13 accessions tested from the wild progenitor species F. virginiana had significantly higher antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, and total anthocyanins than did the fruit of three accessions tested from the cultivated strawberry F. ×ananassa, or the three accessions tested from the other wild progenitor species (F. chiloensis), and will be valuable as a source of parent material for developing more nutritious strawberry cultivars. The high correlation with antioxidant capacity, relative efficiency, and lack of genotype-by-year interaction in this study suggests that the measurement of total phenolics may be the better assay to use for the later selection stages in a strawberry cultivar development program. Of the evaluated F. virginiana accessions, NC 95-19-1, JP 95-1-1, CFRA 0982, NC 96-5-3, and RH 30 fruit were highest in antioxidant capacity and should prove useful toward development of strawberry cultivars with high antioxidant capacities.
S. Y. Wang, H. J. Jiao, and M. Faust
An increase in ascorbic acid, reduced form of glutathione (GSH), total glutathione, total non-protein thiol (NPSH) and non-glutathione thiol (RSH) occurred as a result of induction by thidiazuron during bud break, whereas dehydroascorbic acid and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) decreased during the same period. Thidiazuron also enhanced the ratio of GSH/GSSG, and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate free radical reductase (AFR), ascorbate peroxidase (POD), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), ascorbate oxidase (AAO), and glutathione reductase (GR). The ascorbic acid content and the activities of catalase, SOD, AFR, POD, AAO, and DHAR peaked when buds were in the side green or green tip stage just prior to the start of rapid expansion, and declined thereafter. The GSH, NPSH, RSH, ratio of GSH/GSSG, and activity of GR increased steadily during bud development.
F.D. Moore III, S.R. Nath, and Y-C Wang
Duration of growth is dependent on morphological events or changes in growth rate. It is the latter that is associated with phasic development. The most productive phase of plant growth is the linear or constant rate phase, primarily because it endures longer than the exponential phase. The purpose of our research was to objectively determine the true tree-height growth pattern, the linear and stationary phases of height growth, and to mathematically derive the maximum slope (maximum growth rate) of the growth curve, its location (inflection point), and the maximum slope of the logarithmic form (maximum relative growth rate) of the growth curve. The data were composed of 333 tree-height records covering 240 years from 200 beechwoods in the U.K. Height-age data were fitted using a splined function (S) and the Chapman-Richards function (CR). The growth curve and critical points on the curve were derived from the CR model. The linear phase began when trees were 9 and lasted 43 years. However, the stationary phase did not begin until age 162. Anecdotal evidence suggests that very little fruiting occurs before age 50. Based on derived critical points and anticipated source-sink dynamics, the reproductive stage should have taken place during the progressive “deceleration phase” when trees were between 31 (location of the maximum slope, also inflection point) and 162 (from quadratic root). The linear phase ended at 52 years, (coinciding with minimum acceleration) and may prove a more accurate estimate than 31. Maximum slope was 1.2 m per year occurring at age 31. Maximum slope of the log curve was 0.14 m·m–1 per year. The advantage of the CR function and the importance of the derived quantities and growth phases will be discussed.
Wang Koon-Hui, Brent S. Sipes, and Adelheid R. Kuehnle
Radopholus similis distribution in Anthurium plant tissue was determined in a greenhouse experiment. Two thousand mixed life stages of R. similis per plant were inoculated onto Anthurium cultivars `Alii' and `Midori'. Nine months later, nematodes per gram of tissue were determined from stem sections (0-3, 3-6, and above 6 cm from the base), the lowest leaf petiole, and root tissue. R. similis occurred in all stem sections, leaf petioles, and roots in both `Alii' and `Midori'. Nematode distribution differed between the two cultivars. `Midori' had higher numbers of nematode in the roots whereas `Alii' had higher numbers of nematode in the stem sections and first leaf petiole. Anthurium apical stem cuttings could be contaminated with R. similis and may not be a nematode-free propagation material.
Yuefang Wang, Carol D. Robacker, and S.K. Braman
Azalea lace bug is the most serious pest of cultivated azalea. Though deciduous azaleas are generally considered to be more resistant to lace bug than are evergreen azaleas, some variation in resistance has been reported. The identification of the genetic and physiological basis of resistance is important to eventual development of resistant cultivars of both the deciduous and evergreen azaleas. The first step in this program is to evaluate a wide range of deciduous azaleas for level of resistance. Laboratory evaluations were conducted on nine species and two hybrid cultivars of deciduous azalea and a known susceptible cultivar of evergreen azalea, `Delaware Valley White'. Oviposition rate, rate of egg hatch, number of nymphs surviving, and percent damaged leaf area were evaluated for each of the tested genotypes. Results indicated a wide range of susceptibility, with R. canescens and R. periclymenoides plants highly resistant to infection, while R. atlanticum and R. viscosum were highly susceptible.
Jianping P. Wang, Suleiman S. Bughrara, and C. Jerry Nelson
Identification and screening of grasses with excellent drought tolerance is a desirable strategy in breeding drought-tolerant turf and forage cultivars. Not all fescue selections and cultivars may be equally drought tolerant. An Atlas fescue (Festuca mairei St. Yves) selection and three tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars—Barolex, Kentucky 31, and Falcon II—were subjected to increasing drought stress for a 12-week period. Soil water content (SWC), leaf elongation (LE), leaf water content (LWC), and leaf water potential (Ψw) were measured weekly, and root length (RL) and biomass (RM) were recorded after 12 weeks. The SWC declined progressively during the 12-week drought treatment for all grasses. However, for the three tall fescue cultivars, the SWC decreased at a faster rate than for Atlas fescue. This indicated that Atlas fescue extracted soil water more slowly and developed less-intensive stress than the three tall fescue cultivars. The LE, LWC, and leaf Ψw decreased in drought-treated plants of all grasses; nevertheless, the values for the Atlas fescue remained similar to control plants for a longer period of time than the values for the three tall fescue cultivars. Drought stress significantly reduced root biomass and root length of the grasses. These four Festucas avoid drought stress through changes in leaf and root morphology and probably through osmotic adjustment to maintain sufficient turgor pressure in the growing zone for leaf elongation. The slower decrease in LE, LWC, and leaf Ψw for Atlas fescue during the drought-stress period suggested greater drought tolerance and the potential value for improving this character in a breeding program.
Yuefang Wang, Carol D. Robacker, and S. Kristine Braman
The susceptibility of seventeen deciduous species or cultivars and one evergreen cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron spp.) to azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides Scott) was evaluated in field and laboratory experiments. Rhododendron canescens Michx. and R. periclymenoides (Michx.) Shinners were the most resistant species, followed by R. prunifolium (Small) Millais. Ratings were based on oviposition rate, percentage emergence from the egg, feeding damage, and nymphal growth rate. The most susceptible genotypes were TNLV1, R. oblongifolium (Small) Millais, R. alabamense Rehder, R. serrulatum (Small) Millais, R. viscosum (L.) Torr., `Buttercup', and `My Mary'. Leaf water content and leaf pubescence were significantly different among taxa. However, leaf water content was not significantly correlated with azalea lace bug performance, and insufficient evidence was available to conclude that leaf pubescence was involved in azalea lace bug resistance.
Shiow Y. Wang, Kim S. Lewers, Linda Bowman, and Min Ding
Fruit extracts from 17 to 18 representatives of three strawberry species [Fragaria virginiana Mill., F. chiloensis (L.) Mill., and F. ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier] were tested for the ability to inhibit proliferation of A549 human lung epithelial cancer cells. The fruit extracts also were tested for activities against free radicals, (peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, and superoxide radicals), the activities of antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (EC 126.96.36.199), superoxide dismutase (EC 188.8.131.52), guaiacol peroxidase (EC 184.108.40.206), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 220.127.116.11), monodehydroascorbate reductase (EC 18.104.22.168), dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 22.214.171.124), and glutathione reductase (EC 126.96.36.199)], and the activities of nonenzyme antioxidant components, ascorbic acid and glutathione. Correlations between the proliferation of cancer cells and these antioxidant activities were calculated. At the species level, F. virginiana fruit extract inhibited the proliferation of A549 human lung epithelial cancer cells to a significantly greater extent (34% inhibition) than the extracts from fruit of either F. chiloensis (26%) or F. ×ananassa (25%) (P < 0.0001). Extracts from fruit of F. virginiana also had significantly greater antioxidant activities and higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and nonenzyme components than did extracts from the other two species. Among individual genotypes, there was a high positive correlation between antiproliferation of A549 cancer cells, antioxidant activities against free radicals, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and activities of nonenzyme components. Although all fruit extracts from all the strawberry genotypes inhibited proliferation of A594 cancer cells, fruit extracts from seven F. virginiana genotypes showed significantly greater antiproliferative effects than any of the F. ×ananassa or F. chiloensis genotypes. These genotypes, CFRA 0982, JP 95-1-1, NC 95-19–1, RH 30, NC 96-48-1, JP 95-9-6, and LH 50-4, may be especially useful in developing cultivars with greater anticancer potential.