Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Ryutaro Tao x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
Clear All Modify Search

5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was visualized on the somatic metaphase chromosome of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and ten wild Diospyros species by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled 5S rDNA probe was hybridized onto the chromosomes and visualized by incubation with anti-DIG-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Strong signals of 5S rDNA probe were observed on several chromosomes of Diospyros species tested. Furthermore, multicolor FISH using 5S and 45S rDNA probes differently labeled with DIG and biotin, revealed separate localization of the two rDNA genes on different chromosomes of Diospyros species tested, suggesting that 5S and 45S rDNA sites can be used as chromosome markers in Diospyros. The number of 5S rDNA sites varied with the Diospyros species. More 5S rDNA sites were observed in four diploid species native to Southern Africa than in three Asian diploid species. The former had four or six 5S rDNA sites while the latter had two. Three Asian polyploidy species had four to eight 5S rDNA sites. Among the Asian species, the number of 5S rDNA sites seemed to increase according to ploidy level of species. These features of 5S rDNA sites were very similar to those of 45S rDNA sites in Diospyros. Phylogenetic relationship between D. kaki and wild species tested are discussed based on the number and chromosomal distribution of 5S and 45S rDNA.

Free access

Correct assignment of self-incompatibility alleles (S-alleles) in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is important to assure fruit set in field plantings and breeding crosses. Until recently, only six S-alleles had been assigned. With the determination that the stylar product of the S-locus is a ribonuclease (RNase) and subsequent cloning of the S-RNases, it has been possible to use isoenzyme and DNA analysis to genotype S-alleles. As a result, numerous additional S-alleles have been identified; however, since different groups used different strategies for genotype analysis and different cultivars, the nomenclature contained inconsistencies and redundancies. In this study restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles are presented using HindIII, EcoRI, DraI, or XbaI restriction digests of the S-alleles present in 22 sweet cherry cultivars which were chosen based upon their unique S-allele designations and/or their importance to the United States sweet cherry breeding community. Twelve previously published alleles (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S9, S10, S11, S12, and S13 ) could be differentiated by their RFLP profiles for each of the four restriction enzymes. Two new putative S-alleles, both found in `NY1625', are reported, bringing the total to 14 differentiable alleles. We propose the adoption of a standard nomenclature in which the sweet cherry cultivars `Hedelfingen' and `Burlat' are S3S5 and S3S9 , respectively. Fragment sizes for each S-allele/restriction enzyme combination are presented for reference in future S-allele discovery projects.

Free access

To produce nonaploid Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) by artificial hybridization, we surveyed the natural occurrence of unreduced (2n) pollen among hexaploid cultivars and sorted them from normal reduced (n) pollen. The sorted 2n pollen was crossed with a hexaploid female cultivar and the resultant embryos were rescued by in vitro culture techniques to obtain plantlets. Three out of six male-flower-bearing cultivars (2n = 6x = 90) produced 2n pollen at rates of 4.8% to 15.5% varying with the cultivar, which was estimated by both pollen size and flow cytometry. After sorting giant (2n) from normal pollen grains by using nylon mesh, they were crossed with a hexaploid female cultivar. The seeds obtained from pollination with normal pollen were perfect, but those obtained from pollination with giant pollen were mostly imperfect, with embryo growth being suspended at the globular stage. Although the rate of survival was very low, some embryos at the globular stage were rescued successfully and grown in vitro. Both flow cytometric analysis and chromosome counting proved that the plantlets obtained were nonaploid.

Free access

This report demonstrates the presence of S-ribonucleases (S-RNases), which are associated with gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) in Prunus L., in styles of self-incompatible and self-compatible (SC) selections of tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.). Based on self-pollen tube growth in the styles of 13 sour cherry selections, seven selections were SC, while six selections were SI. In the SI selections, the swelling of pollen tube tips, which is typical of SI pollen tube growth in gametophytic SI, was observed. Stylar extracts of these selections were evaluated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycoproteins which had molecular weights and isoelectric points similar to those of S-RNases in other Prunus sp. were detected in all selections tested. These proteins had immunological characteristics and N-terminal amino acid sequences consistent with the S-RNases in other Prunus sp. Two cDNAs encoding glycoproteins from `Erdi Botermo' were cloned. One of them had the same nucleotide sequence as that of S4 -RNase of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), while the amino acid sequence from the other cDNA encoded a novel S-RNase (named Sa -RNase in this study). This novel RNase contained two active sites of T2/S type RNases and five regions conserved among other Prunus S-RNases. Genomic DNA blot analysis using cDNAs encoding S-RNases of sweet cherry as probes indicated that three or four S-RNase alleles are present in the genome of each selection regardless of SI. All of the selections tested seemed to have at least one S-allele that is also found in sweet cherry. Genetic control of SI/SC in tetraploid sour cherry is discussed based on the results obtained from restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

Free access

This report identifies S-RNases of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and presents information about cDNA sequences encoding the S-RNases, which leads to the development of a molecular typing system for S-alleles in this fruit tree species. Stylar proteins of sweet cherry were surveyed by two dimensional polyaclylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to identify S-proteins associated with gametophytic self-incompatibility. Glycoprotein spots linked to S-alleles were found in a group of proteins which had Mr and pI similar to those of other rosaceous S-RNases. These glycoproteins were present at highest concentration in the upper segment of the mature style and shared immunological characteristics and N-terminal sequences with those of S-RNases of other plant species. cDNAs encoding these glycoproteins were cloned based on the N-terminal sequences. Genomic DNA and RNA blot analyses and deduced amino acid sequences indicated that the cDNAs encode S-RNases; thus the S-proteins identified by 2D-PAGE are S-RNases. Although S1 to S6 -alleles of sweet cherry cultivars could be distinguished from each other with the genomic DNA blot analysis, a much simpler method of PCR-based typing system was developed for the six S-alleles based on the DNA sequence data obtained from the cDNAs encoding S-RNases.

Free access

Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. `Jiro') was transformed using a disarmed strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, EHA101, carrying the binary plasmid vector, pDU92.710. The T-DNA region of pDU92.710 contained the kanamycin resistance gene (nptII), the β-glucuronidase gene (uidA), and a synthetic reconstruct of cryIA(c) encoding the insecticidal crystal protein fragment of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-73. Leaf discs made from leaves of shoot cultures were cocultivated with Agrobacterium and cultured on a callus-induction medium containing kanamycin and cefotaxime. Among 720 infected leaf discs, 17 putative transformed callus lines showing kanamycin resistance were obtained after 8 weeks of culture. When these were cultured on a regeneration medium containing kanamycin, 15 formed adventitious buds. Of the 15 shoot lines, 11 grew well on a shoot-proliferation medium containing kanamycin, while 4 lines did not grow well. Of the 11 shoot lines, 10 showed GUS activities by fluorometric assay and were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern analyses. Except for two lines, all results were consistent with a stable integration of T-DNA into the persimmon genome. The production of CryIA(c) protein in transformed shoot lines was confirmed with Western analysis using anti-CryIA(c) serum. Insect bioassays were conducted with 10 lines showing GUS activity. Many of these lines showed high significant mortality of the test insects, Plodia interpunctella Hüber and Monema flavescens Walker, when compared to nontransformed controls.

Free access

Endodormancy release and the fulfillment of the chilling requirement (CR) are critical physiological processes that enable uniform blooming in fruit tree species, including apple (Malus ×domestica). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits have not been fully characterized. The objective of this study was to identify potential master regulators of endodormancy release and the CR in apple. We conducted RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses and narrowed down the number of candidates among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) based on the following two strict screening criteria: 1) the gene must be differentially expressed between endodormant and ecodormant buds under different environmental conditions and 2) the gene must exhibit chill unit (CU)–correlated expression. The results of our cluster analysis suggested that global expression patterns varied between field-grown buds and continuously chilled buds, even though they were exposed to similar amounts of chilling and were expected to have a similar dormancy status. Consequently, our strict selection strategy resulted in narrowing down the number of possible candidates and identified the DEGs strongly associated with the transition between dormancy stages. The genes included four transcription factor genes, PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4), FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)-LIKE, APETALLA2 (AP2)/ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE 113 (ERF113), and MYC2. Their expressions were upregulated during endodormancy release, and were correlated with the CU, suggesting that these transcription factors are closely associated with chilling-mediated endodormancy release in apple.

Free access