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  • Author or Editor: Richard E. Widmer x
  • HortScience x
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The influences of irradiance level, day length, temperature, and leaf area on growth and flowering of Zantedeschia elliottiana Engl. W. Wats (yellow calla lily) and Z. rehmannii (pink calla lily) were determined. Plants grown with 45% or 15% of natural irradiance were taller than those grown under full natural irradiance but flowered at the same time and produced a similar number of flowers. Leaf removal treatments had no effect on any characteristic measured. Plants grown with a night interruption (NI; 2200 hr to 0200 hr) were taller than those under short days (SD = 8 hours), but flowered at the same time and produced a similar number of flowers. Plants were grown with air at 15 or 20C in combination with medium temperatures at ambient level (1C less than air temperature) or a constant 20 or 25C. Z. rehmannii grown with the medium at 20 or 25C and air at 1.5 or 20C flowered faster and were taller than plants grown with air at 15C and with the medium at ambient temperature, but plants from all temperatures produced the same number of flowers over a 120-day cycle. When plants grown with a NI in the first cycle were replanted and grown through a second cycle, they were taller than plants grown from SD treatment first-cycle plants. No first growth-cycle treatment influenced flowering in the second growth cycle.

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Growth and flowering of Zantedeschia elliottiana W. Wats. and Z. rehmannii Engl. were studied. Rhizomes of both species were produced either in a glasshouse or outdoors in California. Plants grown from glasshouse-produced rhizomes flowered within 90 days only when a preplant rhizome soak of 500 ppm GA, was applied. Control plants of both species flowered when grown from field-produced rhizomes, but a GA3 preplant rhizome soak significantly increased the number of flowers (spathe and spadix) produced. Paclobutrazol, applied as a preplant rhizome soak or as a soil drench when shoots were 2 to 3 cm long, significantly limited plant height of Z. rehmannii from either source if not treated with GA,. Paclobutrazol and GA, treatments interacted significantly to affect height and number of flowers of Z. rehmannii grown from field-produced rhizomes. Treatment with GA3 overcame the dwarfing effect of paclobutrazol, while paclobutrazol treatment limited flower production. Z. rehmannii rhizomes >6.5 cm in diameter produced more shoots and leaves than smaller rhizomes, regardless of GA3 treatment. Emergence, number of shoots, and number of leaves from Z. elliottiana were not significantly affected by the rhizome size-GA3 variable combination. Production of normal flowers was increased by GA3 treatment of all sizes of Z. rehmannii rhizomes except the smallest, with the most flowers being produced by plants from the largest rhizomes. Production of deformed flowers was greatest from rhizomes treated with 500 ppm GA3, with no deformed flowers on control plants.

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Abstract

Zantedeschia elliottiana Engl. and Z. rehmannii W. Wats. rhizomes replanted immediately after leaf removal (without a period of storage) did not grow. Rhizomes replanted after leaf senescence, induced by withholding water, sprouted without an additional storage period, but height and number of leaves and shoots per rhizome were greater from rhizomes stored for ≥3 weeks. Rhizomes stored at 22°C for 6 weeks lost significantly more weight than rhizomes stored at 4° or 9°. Height and number of leaves and shoots per rhizome were greatest after 9° storage for both species, but differences were significant for Z. rehmannii only.

Open Access

Abstract

Gibberellic acid (GA3) was applied to Zantedeschia elliottiana (W. Wats.) and Z. rehmannii (Engl.) (yellow and pink calla lily) at 0, 50, 100, 500, or 1000 ppm, either as a preplant rhizome 10-min soak or as a foliar spray. Soaking rhizomes in 500 ppm GA3 prior to planting increased number of flowering shoots and flowers per shoot. Leaves on treated plants were narrower, but length was unaffected. Flower height was not affected. Foliar sprays did not alter any measured parameter. A preplant GA soak may be useful in the production of Zantedeschia as flowering potted plants. Chemical name used: (1α, 2β, 4aα, 4bβ, 10β)-2,4a,7-trihydroxy-1-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-1,10-dicarboxylic acid 1,4a-lactone (GA3).

Open Access