The heritability of shortened fruit maturation (SFM) period in Cornell 871213-1, an inbred cherry tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (Dunal.) A. Gray] line, was estimated from a greenhouse experiment. Cornell 871213-1 was crossed with the cherry tomato line NC 21C-1. Mean fruit maturation period (FMP) (days from anthesis to the breaker stage of fruit color) was 40.8 days for NC 21C-1 and 32.0 days for Cornell 871213-1. Parental, F1, F2, and backcross generations all differed in mean FMP and yielded, estimates of broad- and narrow-sense SFM heritabilities of 72% and 40%, respectively, on a single-plant basis. A test for midparent heterosis showed significance. Genetic control of SFM was quantitative in nature and highly dominant. A field study of an F2 population developed from the cross Cornell 871213-1 × NC 84173, the latter a large-fruited tomato line (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), gave a mean FMP of 48.4 and 31.2 days for NC 84173 and Cornell 871213-1, respectively. The F1 and F2 generations had FMP of 33.1 and 34.7 days, respectively. The parents, F1, and F2 generations all differed in FMP. Parental, F1, and F2 generations yielded an estimate of broad-sense SFM heritability of 64% on a single-plant basis. F3 progenies from selected F2s were grown in a greenhouse, and F3-F2 regression analysis gave a narrow-sense SFM heritability of 39%. Parental means differed from each other and from the F1 and F2 means for period from sowing to anthesis, fruit weight, and locule number. F1 and F2 means did not differ for any trait and were far below the midparent values, approaching Cornell 871213-1 for each trait except for the number of days from sowing to anthesis. Significant correlations existed in the F2 generation between FMP and fruit weight (0.61) and between fruit weight and locule number (0.69). Significant correlations existed between selected F2s and their F3 progeny for FMP (0.53), fruit weight (0.78), and days from sowing to anthesis (0.78). In the F3 generation, a significant correlation occurred between FMP and fruit weight (0.48). F3-F2 regression and realized heritabilities were used as two estimates of narrow-sense heritability (29% and 31%, respectively) for days from sowing to anthesis.
Early blight resistance was estimated in field plots for parents and F1, F2, and backcross progenies of crosses with NC EBR-1, a line derived from Lycopersicon hirsutum P.I. 126445. Areas under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) showed that resistance from NC EBR-1 was heritable and quantitative in nature. generation means in two families were intermediate to those of NC EBR-1 and susceptible parents. The distribution of AUDPC means for the different generations in both families indicated the presence of epistasis or gene linkage. Lack of fitness tests for curve-linearity confirmed this in one family. A, B, and C scaling tests showed similar results. A joint three-factor model and subsequently a six-factor model displayed the presence of epistasis in both families. Ignoring epistatic effects, narrow-sense heritability (h2) was 0.49 in one family and 0.40 in the other. By regressing F3 progeny AUDPC means on selected F2 plant values, h2 was 0.25 and 0.17, respectively.
Reactions of 122 apple clones, representing 26 pure and hybrid species of Malus, to Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. were evaluated in the greenhouse, orchard, and field nursery. Vigorously growing shoots, 7 to 9 weeks old, were tip inoculated by injecting a 24-hour broth culture of a highly pathogenic isolate of E. amylovora. Lesion development, measured 5 to 7 weeks after inoculation, was expressed as a percentage of the current season’s shoot length killed by fire blight. Inter- and intraspecific variation in resistance, similar to that reported for Pyrus, was observed. The highest level of resistance, typified by a small necrotic lesion 2-3 mm in diameter around the inoculation point, occurred in small-fruited selections derived from Asiatic species. Few selections of the cultivated apple, Malus pumila Mill., were resistant. Fire blight ratings were assigned the clones based on their potentials as parents for breeding apple rootstocks.
Seedling progenies from controlled crosses involving Malus sp. clones were tested for resistance to Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. by shoot tip inoculation. In progenies from crosses between fire blight-susceptible M. pumila selections, over 90% of the seedlings were killed. In most progenies from crosses between resistant and susceptible selections, regardless of species source, few resistant seedlings occurred. Progenies from crosses between resistant parents generally had the most resistant seedlings, but segregated some highly susceptible offspring. Distribution patterns suggested quantitative control of resistance, with resistant parents heterozygous for resistance genes. In progenies from crosses of the highly resistant M. × robusta No. 5 (R5) and M. × sublobata PI 286613 (613) with susceptible parents, about 1/8 of the seedlings exhibited the fire blight reaction of the highly resistant parent. All progenies of 613 and R5, including those obtained by selfing and by crossing the two with each other, segregated some susceptible offspring. In a replicated nursery test involving seedlings of a 613 progeny, various fire blight resistance classes in the population were distinguished statistically. Resistance in 613 and R5 was interpreted as oligogenic (conditioned by few genes), with dominant, additive genes carried in the heterozygous condition.
Prostrate growth habit (PGH) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) lines derived from breeding material developed at the Agriculture Canada Research Station, Beaverlodge, Alberta, was the subject of a quantitative inheritance study. Plants with PGH have an increased lateral branch angle, relative to upright plants, and crown-set fruit supported above the soil surface making hand harvest easier. Genetic parameters were estimated in two families (20G and 53G), each containing PGH and upright-habit parental lines, F1, F2, and backcrosses to each parent. Field-grown plants were subjectively rated twice during the growing season. Broad-sense heritability of PGH in family 20G was estimated to be 0.65 and 0.71 for ratings of plant growth habit 6 and 9 weeks after transplanting, respectively, and 0.71 and 0.68 for those of family 53G. Narrow-sense heritability was estimated to be 0.83 and 1.05 for the two ratings in the 20G family and 0.77 and 0.78 in the 53G family. F1 and F2 means were not different from mid-parent values. The genetic variance was entirely additive and expression was influenced by the environment. The data did not support the hypothesis that PGH was controlled by a single gene.