Clonal multiplication of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) was accomplished in three stages: 1) shoot tip culture initiation stage, 2) shoot multiplication stage, and 3) rooting stage. The culture medium for the initiation stage was examined by comparing various inorganic salt mixtures, vitamin mixtures, carbohydrates, growth regulators, agars, pH’s, and additional supplements for their effect on growth and development of multiple shoots from shoot tips. When shoot tips (ca. 1 mm high) were grown on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 µM kinetin and 1 µM NAA, apical dominance was counteracted and morphologically normal shoots proliferated rapidly. Transferring these cultures after 4 wk to 100 ml flasks (one per flask) with 50 ml of same medium without agar and supplements, and with the kinetin concentration reduced to 2.5 µM, resulted in an average per original shoot tip of 28 shoots over 2 cm in height being produced in another 3 weeks. These shoots were rooted in BR-8 blocks or Jiffy-7 peat pellets under intermittent mist. Plantlets rooted in these supports were transferred easily to greenhouse conditions. Incorporation of carnation micropropagation into a pathogen-free propagative stock program should not be difficult, and might prove beneficial even if large scale use is limited by economic considerations.
This study was carried out to determine the influences of planting date (June, July) and soil applications of Trichoderma harzianum (strain T-95) and a fungicide containing ethazole + thiophanate (BanrotR) on flower production of standard carnation cvs. Improved White and Tanga. The one-year production data showed that the fungicide treatment increased flower yield by 7.3% (33.5 flowers/m2) and 4.8% (23.3 flowers/m2) in Improved White and Tanga, respectively, for June planting. Improved White produced more flowers and fancy grades when planted in July as compared to June planting. Planting date did not influence either the yield or the flower quality in Tanga. The effectiveness of Trichoderma as a biological control agent on flower yield and quality was not evident. The patterns of weekly flower production for the two cultivars were determined and graphically illustrated.