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  • Author or Editor: R.W. Young x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

Leaves were collected in 1974 and 1975 from mature ‘Tonnage’, ‘Lula’, ‘Taylor’, and ‘Booth 8’ avocado trees (Persea americana Mill.) on sand, muck, and calcareous rock soils and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Significant differences in levels of all 9 elements in ‘Tonnage’ leaves occurred among the 3 soil types. Crop size, fertilization, soil pH, soil Ca level, and exchange capacity of the soil appeared to be important factors in the variations. Differences in concentration of N and P were not significant among the 4 cultivars but were significant for the other elements.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

As leaves of ‘Tonnage’ avocado (Persea americana Mill.) increased in age, N, P, and K contents decreased, while Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe contents were higher. A comparison of leaves from 1st and 2nd flushes showed similar trends reflected in leaf age. The basal leaf was lower in P but higher in Ca, Mg, and Cu when compared with the terminal leaf of the same twig. Only N and Cu contents were different when leaves from fruiting and nonfruiting twigs were compared. Practical application of the data in sampling avocado leaves is discussed.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

As mango leaves increased in age, lower P and K contents were found, while Ca content was higher. The basal leaf was lower in N and Ca but higher in P and K contents when compared with the terminal leaf of the same shoots. Only small differences were observed when leaves were compared from fruiting and nonfruiting shoots. The practical application of data in sampling mango leaves is discussed.

Open Access

`Spears' (nonpinched and pinched) and `Yellow Mandalay' (pinched) chrysanthemums were grown in growth chambers equipped with panels filled with liquids that served as spectral filters. Light quality was altered by reducing blue light, increasing red: far-red (R: FR) light, or reducing R: FR. Control panels did not selectively alter light transmission. Photosynthetic photon flux was the same in all chambers. All plants grown under increased R: FR filters had reduced height, reduced internode length, and increased chlorophyll content compared to controls. Reduction in blue light decreased chlorophyll content of pinched plants compared to controls. Pinched plants grown under increased R: FR light and !ong days developed fewer nodes than controls due to the formation of abnormal capitula; the controls and plants from the other treatments developed more nodes before producing similarly abnormal capitula. Stem diameter and leaf area did not differ due to treatments.

Free access

Shading (92%) of `Redchief Delicious' apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) trees for 10-day periods from 10 to 20, 15 to 25, 20 to 30, and 25 to 35 days after full bloom (DAFB) caused greater fruit abscission than shading from 5 to 15, 30 to 40, 35 to 45, or 47 to 57 DAFB. Fruit 8 to 33 mm in diameter (10 to 30 DAFB) were very sensitive to 10 days of shade, even though fruit sizes of 6 to 12 mm are considered the most sensitive to chemical thinners. In a second test, shading for 3 days caused fruit thinning; 5 days of shade in the periods 18 to 23, 23 to 28, and 28 to 33 DAFB caused greater thinning than 11 to 16 or 33 to 38 DAFB. Shading reduced photosynthesis (Pn) to about one-third that of noncovered trees. Terbacil (50 mg·liter-1) + X-77 surfactant (1250 mg·liter-1) applied with a hand-pump sprayer 5, 10, or 15 DAFB greatly reduced fruit set and caused some leaf yellowing, particularly in the earliest treatments. Terbacil reduced Pn by more than 90% at 72 hours after application. Shoot growth of trees defruited by shade or terbacil was equivalent to defruited or deblossomed trees; ethephon (1500 mg·liter-1) inhibited tree growth and defruited trees. No terbacil residues were dectected in fruit at harvest from applications made 5, 15, 20, 25, or 30 DAFB. Eleven of 12 photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides were also found to thin `Redchief Delicious' apple trees. Shading caused more thinning than terbacil at the later applications, which may reflect poorer absorption and/or lesser photosynthetic inhibition than when terbacil was applied to older leaves.

Free access

Abstract

Yields and quality were compared on young bearing ‘Bearss’ lemon (Citrus limon L.) trees grown with 3 rates of N and K and 2 levels of soil moisture over a 4-year period. Increased rates of N application increased fruit production, incidence of fruit with scab, and green fruit; and decreased acid content of juice. Potassium applications increased the acid content of juice. Irrigation increased fruit size and decreased the number of green fruit after curing. A leaf N content of 2.2 to 2.6% is suggested for optimum fruit production for ‘Bearss’ lemon under Florida conditions.

Open Access

Abstract

Accessions, breeding lines, and varieties of Lycopersicon spp. and one accession of Solarium pennellii Correll were evaluated for sensitivity to controlled concentrations of O3 and to ambient air at Waltham, Massachusetts. The plant material was exposed in different stages of development to controlled O3 concentrations of 0.25 ppm for 3 hours, 0.05 ppm for 2 weeks and to 0.10 ppm for 4 weeks. Based upon the degree of foliar injury, the tested material was separated into tolerant, intermediate and sensitive populations. The highest degree of tolerance was observed in L. esculentum Mill, and the highest degree of sensitivity in L. pimpinellifolium. Germination of pollen from inflorescences exposed to 0.10 ppm was reduced 40% in sensitive accessions of L. pimpinellifolium when placed on artificial medium. No significant reduction was observed in the most tolerant accession of L. esculentum. Differences in percent germination were not observed when pollen of sensitive and tolerant accessions was placed on artificial medium and exposed to 0.10 ppm O3 for a six-hour period. Reciprocal cross pollinations between exposed and unexposed populations led to normal fruit development with viable seeds.

Open Access

Abstract

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruit from various locations in California were analyzed for oil and subjected to taste tests every 2 weeks throughout the fruiting season over a period of 5 years. Oil content at acceptable taste differed among cultivars, and the 8% requirement was too low to serve as a good maturity standard for many cultivars. While the date of acceptable taste of fruit grown at the same location was not significantly different from year to year, it varied significantly among and within the widespread avocado production areas. Dry weight, which was highly correlated with increasing oil content, was evaluated as a maturity index. The dry-weight analysis with a microwave oven was much easier than determining oil content. The average dry weight at 8% oil (the existing legal standard in California) was 19.4% for ‘Bacon’, 19.1% for ‘Fuerte’, 19.8% for ‘Hass’, 18.9% for ‘Pinkerton’, and 18.4% for ‘Zutano’ fruit. Dry weight at acceptable taste was 20.0% for ‘Bacon’, 21.0% for ‘Fuerte’, 22.8% for ‘Hass’, 20.0% for ‘Pinkerton’, and 20.2% for ‘Zutano’.

Open Access