Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for :

  • Author or Editor: R.L. Bell x
  • HortScience x
Clear All Modify Search
Author:

Eight cultivars and wild seedlings of pear (Pyrus spp.) from Eastern Europe were evaluated for resistance to feeding by early instar pear psylla [Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster)] in a 24-hour assay. All were compared to a susceptible control, `Bartlett' (P. communis L.), and to a moderately resistant control, NY10352 (P. communis × P. ussuriensis Maxim. BC hybrid). Three P. communis cultivars, Bartjarka (PI 483391), Lucele (PI 483402), and Kajzerka (PI 506387), and a wild seedling (PI 506381) of undetermined species, exhibited a high degree of host resistance, measured as reduced frequency of feeding and increased either mortality or movement off of the plants.

Free access
Authors: and

`Fifty-nine cultivars and wild seedlings of pear (Pyrus spp.) from Eastern Europe were evaluated for resistance to feeding by early instar pear psylla [Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster)] in a 24-hour assay. `Bartlett' (P. communis L.) and NY 10352 (P. communis × P. ussuriensis Maxim. BC1 hybrid) were used as susceptible and resistant controls, respectively. A. high degree of resistance, measured as increased mortality and reduced frequency of feeding, was found in 11 plant introductions: `Erabasma' (PI 483370), `Krupan Burnusus' (PI 483387), `Topka' (PI 484489), `Zelinka' (PI 483393), `Mednik' (PI 483399), `Karamanlika' (PI 502165), `Katman' (PI 502172), `Smokvarka' (PI 502176), `Obican Vodenac' (PI 502177), a clone thought to be `Smiljerka' (PI 502178), and an unnamed seedling (PI 506382).

Free access

Twenty-eight greenhouse screening materials, with predetermined airflow resistance values, were evaluated for exclusion of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Perring & Bellows) and thrips from a mixed-species population. Screens differed in exclusion efficacy, as a percentage of the fiberglass window screen control and at an approach velocity of at 92 m/min, from –35 to 94% for silverleaf whitefly and from –13 to 95% for thrips. Seventeen screens excluded more silverleaf whitefly, whereas seven excluded more thrips than the window screen control. One material differentially excluded whitefly over thrips; many more differentially excluded thrips over whitefly. Airflow resistance, indicative of mesh hole size, did not necessarily correspond with degree of exclusion. Though two high-resistance screens, No-Thrips and Econet S, excluded both pests, not all materials characterized as highly resistant to airflow provided significant exclusion. Exclusion of both pests was also attained with three moderate resistance screens, BugBed 123, BugBed 85, Pak 44×44, and one low-resistance screen, BugBed 110UV.

Free access
Authors: and

During 1976-1980, three plant exploration trips were made throughout eastern Europe in search of native Pyrus germplasm. A total of 384 accessions (231 from Yugoslavia, 86 from Romania, 43 from Poland, and 12 each from Hungary and Czechoslovakia) were collected as budwood and propagated at the National Plant Germplasm Quarantine Center in Glenn Dale, Md. Following 8 years of exposure to the fire blight bacterium [Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winsl. et al.], 17.49” of the accessions remained uninfected, 11.2% rated resistant, 6.8% moderately resistant, and 64.6% blighted severely (26% to 100% of tree blighted). Some of the superior accessions have been released for use in the pear breeding program.

Free access

`Blake's Pride' has been released jointly by USDA and The Ohio State Univ. as a new fire blight-resistant cultivar. The original seedling tree was selected in 1977 at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center in Wooster by R.C. Blake and T. van der Zwet from a cross of US 446 × US 505, performed in 1965 by H.J. Brooks, and was tested under the original seedling number, OHUS 66131-021. The fruit of `Blake's Pride' is pyriform to round-pyriform in shape, and is moderate in size, averaging ≈2.75″ to 3″ in diameter, and 3.25″ in height. The stem is short, medium in thickness, and upright. Skin undercolor is yellow, the finish is glossy, and 20% to 30% of the fruit surface is covered with a smooth, light tan russet. Harvest maturity occurs about 3 weeks after `Bartlett', and the fruit will store in air storage for at least 3 months without core breakdown or superficial scald. The flesh texture is moderately fine, juicy, and buttery. Grit cells are moderately small and occur primarily around the core and in a thin layer under the skin, similar to `Bartlett'. The flavor is subacid and aromatic. The tree is moderate in vigor on `Bartlett' seedling rootstock, and upright-spreading in habit. Yield has been moderate to moderately high. Fire blight infections are rare, and extend no further than 1-year-old growth. Artificial blossom inoculations indicate a moderate degree of resistance of blossoms to fire blight infection. Resistance of `Blake's Pride' to both shoot and blossom infection is much greater than that of `Bartlett'.

Free access

Since whiteflies preferentially oviposit on the newest leaves, it is the early life stages that are most likely to be present on poinsettia cuttings from infested stock or infested during rooting. This study evaluated efficacy of insecticidal dips against eggs and first nymphal instars of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii. Dip efficacy was investigated by dipping rooted cuttings of whitefly-infested `Freedom' in the following insecticide emulsions: 2% insecticidal soap (M-Pede), 1% horticultural oil (Ultrafine), fluvalinate (Mavrik), oxythioquinox (Joust), kinoprene (EnstarII), azadirachtin (Margosan-O), fenoxycarb (Precision) and imidacloprid (Merit). Two dip durations, 10 seconds and 1 hour, were tested for each insecticide. Water dips for the two durations were used as control treatments. Fenoxycarb and azadirachtin dips for durations of 10 seconds and 1 hour and oxythioquinox dips for 1 hour resulted in greater egg mortality than the other treatments. No insecticide/dip duration treatment gave 100% mortality of eggs. Dips found to be efficacious killed proportionately fewer eggs than first instar nymphs.

Free access

Differences in soil microenvironment affect the availability of N in small areas of large turfgrass stands. Optical sensing may provide a method for assessing plant N needs among these small areas and could help improve turfgrass uniformity. The purpose of this study was to determine if optical sensing was useful for measuring turfgrass responses stimulated by N fertilization. Areas of `U3' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], `Midfield' bermudagrass [C. dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy], and `SR1020' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) were divided into randomized complete blocks and fertilized with different N rates. A spectrometer was used to measure energy reflected from the turfgrass within the experimental units at 350 to1100 nm wavelengths. This spectral information was used to calculate normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI). These spectral indices were regressed with tissue N and chlorophyll content determined from turfgrass clippings collected immediately following optical sensing. The coefficients of determination for NDVI and GNDVI regressed with tissue N averaged r 2 = 0.76 and r2 = 0.81, respectively. The coefficients of determination for NDVI and GNDVI regressed with chlorophyll averaged r 2 = 0.70 and r 2 = 0.75, respectively. Optical sensing was equally effective for estimating turfgrass responses to N fertilization as more commonly used evaluations such as shoot growth rate (SGR regressed with tissue N; r 2 = 0.81) and visual color evaluation (color regressed with chlorophyll; r 2 = 0.64).

Free access