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  • Author or Editor: R. Neal Peterson x
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In 1993, PPF and KSU embarked on a joint venture to test within pawpaw's native range many of the commercially available named pawpaw cultivars and PPF's advanced selections. Orchards for RVT were planted in 17 locations from Fall 1995 through Fall 1996 (possibly into 1997) consisting of 300 trees each. At each RVT site, eight replicate trees of each of the 28 grafted scion varieties will be tested in a randomized complete-block design. Named varieties that are secured for testing include Middletown, Mitchell, NC-1, Overleese, PA-Golden, Sunflower, Taylor, Taytwo, Wells, and Wilson. The other 18 clones to be evaluated originated in PPF orchards at the Univ. of Maryland Experiment Stations at Wye and Keedysville. Seedling trees from local native sources were planted around the perimeter as a buffer against edge effects and to allow comparisons with local germplasm. Identical orchards of the RVT are located in the following states: Arizona, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky (two sites), Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee (two sites), and the Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China. An orchard of nonidentical design is located in Florida. Additional sites in Connecticut and Chile are contemplated. Variables being studied in the trial include climate, culture, pests, growth, flowering, yield, and fruit characteristics. Trees will be evaluated for several years for yield, year-to-year consistency, regional suitability, etc. At the end of the trial period, regional recommendations will be made. Scion–rootstock compatibility based on percent scion take, scion growth (scion height and cross-sectional area), and first year field data are presented and discussed.

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The pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] is a tree fruit native to the eastern United States with potential as an alternative crop for small farmers. The Pawpaw Regional Variety Trial (PRVT) was established in 1993 by Kentucky State University (KSU) and the PawPaw Foundation (PPF) and includes 28 cultivars and advanced selections planted at 12 sites. The PRVT was established at the KSU Research Farm in Frankfort, Ky., in 1998. Data has been collected on the KSU-PRVT annually since its inception. The first fruit were produced in 1999, with Middletown, Mitchell, Overleese, and Sunflower being the most precocious varieties. A frost occurred in early April 2000, decimating the crop, with only eight fruit being produced across the orchard. In 2001, 12% of the trees produced fruit, with PA-Golden having the best early production. In 2002, 68% of trees in the PRVT fruited, producing a total of 3,500 fruit. Selections with the largest fruit (over 200 g) were Susquehanna, 5-5, 4-2, and 1-7-2. In 2003, a spring frost destroyed most of the flowers and developing fruit. Only 32 out of the 224 trees in the PRVT retained fruit, a total of only 131 fruit in the entire orchard. In 2004, the PRVT produced about 25,000 fruit across the entire orchard. Selections 4-2 and 7-90 produced the largest fruit, over 200 g. Shenandoah, 10-35, and 8-20 were the highest-yielding clones, all producing over 15 kg of fruit per tree. In 2005, spring frosts and a severe summer drought diminished fruit set and retention in the PRVT, with the orchard producing 8,900 fruit. Selections 4-2, 5-5, and Susquehanna produced the largest fruit, all weighing over 200 g. The highest yielding selections were 10-35, PA-Golden, and 1-7-2, all producing over 8 kg of fruit per tree.

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The pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] has great potential as a new fruit crop. A pawpaw variety trial was established in Fall 1995 in Princeton, Ky. as a joint Kentucky State Univ.-Univ. of Kentucky research effort with the objective to identify superior varieties for Kentucky. A randomized block experimental design was used with 8 replicates of 28 grafted scion selections on seedling rootstock. Cultivars being tested included Middletown, Mitchell, NC-1, Overleese, PA-Golden, Rappahannock, Shenandoah, Sunflower, Susquehanna, Taylor, Tay-two, Wells, and Wilson. The other 15 clones were selections from the PawPaw Foundation. In 2002 and 2003, the following parameters were examined: tree survival, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), average fruit weight, total fruit harvested per tree, average fruit per cluster, total yield per tree, and yield efficiency. In 2003, 54% of the trees had survived, with `Susquehanna' (13%) showing the poorest survival. Based on TCSA, most selections displayed excellent vigor, with the exception of the selections: 5-5 and `Overleese'. Average fruit weight was greatest in 1-7-2 (194 g), 1-68 (167g), 4-2 (321 g), 5-5 (225 g), 7-90 (166g), 9-58 (176 g), 10-35 (167 g), NC-1 (180 g), `Sunflower' (204 g), and `Shenandoah' (168g), with the smallest fruit in `Middletown' (70 g), `Wells' (78 g), and `Wilson' (88 g). The selections `Wilson' (81), `Middletown' (75), and `Wells' (70) had the greatest average number of fruit per tree, whereas 4-2 (9), 5-5 (17) and 8-20 (15) the fewest. Yield efficiency and average fruit per cluster also varied greatly among selections. Several pawpaw selections in the trial show promise for production in Kentucky.

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