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  • Author or Editor: R. M. Skirvin x
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Abstract

Shoot proliferation of ‘Forever Yours’ greenhouse rose (Rosa hybrida L.) was a-chieved in vitro using a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) high salt medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (BA) at 2.0 mg/liter and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 0.1 mg/liter. Shoots were readily rooted on ¼ strength MS medium without hormones. Rooted shoots were successfully transferred to soil and grew well in the greenhouse.

Open Access

Abstract

Although strawberry species have existed for an estimated 50 million years (17), and their use by man has been dated to the bronze age (19), only after the 14th century A.D. were strawberry plants gathered from the wild and grown in gardens. These first cultivated strawberry plants were grown for both ornamental and medicinal purposes (11). The strawberries of the past were different from those of today. The fruit was small, plants were not productive, and in many respects were far inferior to the large fruited cultivars that are now grown in many parts of the world.

Open Access

Abstract

A historical analysis of apple nomenclature leads to the conclusion that the legitimate epithet for the cultivated apple is Malus Xdomestica Borkh.

Open Access

Abstract

Blackberry (Rubus sp.) fruit can be enjoyed fresh or as one of many processed products. Blackberry preserves, jam, and jelly long have been favorites in this country. Fresh blackberries generally are soft, highly perishable fruit; hence, most processing for commercial production is quick, in plants located near major production areas. Commercial blackberry production is centered in regions where native or introduced Rubus species flourish. Production trends in these regions will be described, followed by a discussion of blackberry products.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Uneven-ripening ‘Concord’ grapes were treated with 250 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) about 2 weeks prior to harvest. “Green” berries responded with increased rate of ripening over untreated “green” berries as measured by soluble solids and anthocyanin content. GA3-treated berries also developed a callus-like layer between the pedicel and the skin which delayed drop also resulting in more evenly ripened clusters. In uneven-ripening clusters, “green” in contrast to “colored” berries had significantly fewer seeds and many of these seeds had aborted.

Open Access

Abstract

Rapid proliferation of axillary buds of ‘Thornless Boysenberry’ and ‘Thornless Young-berry’ (Rubus sp.) in tissue culture has been achieved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 6-benzylamino purine (BA) and α-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Shoots were induced to root on medium consisting of MS high mineral salts, myo-inositol, and thia-mine·HCl diluted to 1/16 to 1/2 strength and supplemented with full strength sucrose and agar. Rooted plants have been successfully moved to soil and grown in the greenhouse.

Open Access

To study the causes of low germinability in dried blackberry seeds, seeds harvested from fresh `Thornless Evergreen' (TE) blackberry (Rubus laciniatus Willd.) were either air-dried (12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, or 120 hours) or explanted directly onto growth-regulator-free medium after bleach disinfestation. Seeds were either cut in half before explanting or kept intact. None of the intact seeds germinated. Fewer of the halved seeds dried 12 hours or more germinated than control (fresh moist) seeds (42.7% and 54.5%, respectively). Germination decreased to <12% following >48 hours of air-drying. In a separate study, fresh seeds of TE and `Navaho' were either dried as described or held in sealed petri dishes on moist filter paper (moist treatment) for up to 60 hours. After 60 hours, germination of dried seeds of both cultivars had decreased significantly; there was no significant change in germination percentage for moist seeds. Since moist halved seeds germinated well and dried halved seeds did not, the inability of dried blackberry seeds to germinate is due to more factors than just the hard seedcoat typical of the genus.

Free access

`Embryonic axes-derived `Burpless Hybrid' cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plantlets germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 16 combinations of BAP and NAA and seedlings derived from whole seeds cultured on semi-solid agar were inoculated in vitro with two isolates (WFU3 and WFM13) of Pythium aphanidermatum. All axes-derived plantlets and whole seedlings inoculated with WFM13 isolates were susceptible to blight and died 2 days after inoculation. Similarly, all seedlings inoculated with WFU3 isolates were killed within 2 days after inoculation; however, the rate of development and severity of blight varied among the axes-derived plantlets. Blight on axes-derived plantlets, regenerated on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg BAP/liter and 0.2 mg NAA/liter, was significantly less than on regenerants cultured on all other amended MS media. On some media, callus developed on crowns and/or primary roots. The presence of callus influenced resistance to Pythium. In a second experiment, axes-derived cucumber regenerants from five genotypes, cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg BAP/liter and 0.2 mg N&A/liter, were compared for their resistance to P. aphanidermatum isolate WFU3. Resistance was significantly greater for `Burpless Hybrid' and `Sweetslice' than for three other genotypes. Chemical names used: 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP); α -naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

Free access

A system to propagate tronchuda (Brassica oleracea var. tronchuda Bailey syn. costata L.) from main stem and side shoot cuttings was developed by removing the main stem (three to four leaves) and, later, side shoots from S-week-old plants, transplanting them into small pots, and growing them under a mist system for 4 weeks. New root growth appeared on cuttings within 3 weeks. Rooting frequency varied among cultivars and explant types. For all cultivars, side shoot cuttings rooted better than main stem cuttings (99.7% vs. 84.8%). For all cultivars, seed-propagated plants and side shoot cuttings produced leaves with significantly higher fresh weight than the main stem cuttings for three of the five cultivars. The average number of leaves per plant for four cultivars was, however, not significantly affected by propagation method. Average leaf count and fresh weight per plant were significantly higher for `Portuguesa' than for `Ana Maria'. `Couve Penca'. `Vilinda', and `Penca de Chaves' for all three propagation sources.

Free access

Shoots of greenhouse-grown Algerian ivy (Hedera canariensis L.) were surface disinfected and explanted on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BA (10 μm) and NAA (2.5 μm). One month later the shoots were transferred to MS proliferation medium supplemented with TDZ (0.1 or 0.5 μm) and NAA (40 μm). An average of three microshoots developed on each stem treated with TDZ. Pruned shoots grown on MS medium supplemented with GA3 (20 μm) and BA (20 μm) branched better than unpruned shoots (3.7 vs. 1 per explant, respectively). Rooted shoots grown ex vitro grew and developed a shape suitable for commercial sale in 3 months. Chemical names used: N -(phenyl-methyl)-l H -purine-6-amine (BA); gibberellic acid (GA3); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NM); N -phenyl-W-1,2,3-thiadiazo-5-yl urea (Thidiazuron, TDZ).

Free access