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  • Author or Editor: R. E. Byers x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

Commercially formulated baits of 3-[3-4’-bromo[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-yl) l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (brodifacoum, BFC, Volak), 2-[(p-chlorophenyl) phenylacetyl]-1,3-indandione (chlorophacinone, CPN, Rozol), and 2-diphenylacetyl-1,2-indandione (diphacinone, DPN, Ramik-Brown) hand placed at 5.6 kg/ha (5 lb./acre), 11.2 kg/ha (10 lb./acre), and 11.2 kg/ha (10 lb./acre), respectively, were effective pine vole control agents. Hand-placed baits were more effective under adverse weather conditions than broadcast baits. Cellophane packaged BFC bait placed under site covers gave excellent control and greatly protected bait from soil moisture and spoilage. Broadcast treatments of anticoagulant baits gave good control at the following rates: 1 application of BFC at 16.8 kg/ha (15 lb./acre), 3-[3-(4’-bromo [1,1’-biphenyl]-4-y)-3-hydroxy-1-phenylpropyl]-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (bromodialone, BDL, Maki) at 16.8 kg/ha (15 lb./acre), and 1 application CPN at 22.4 kg/ha (20 lb./acre), or 2 applications of DPN at 22.4 kg/ha (20 lb./acre) each.

Open Access
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Abstract

Hand placement of commercially prepared baits of 2-[(p-chlorophenyl) phenylacetyl]-l,3-indandione (Chlorophacinone, CPN, Rozol), 3-[3-(4’-bromo[1,l’-biphenyl]-4-y)-3-hydroxy-1-phenylpropyl]-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (Bromadiolone, LM-637) and 3-[3-(4-bromo[l,l’-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (Brofacoum, BFC, ICI 581) were found to be very effective in controlling the pine vole, Microtus pinetorum LeConte, in a single 11.2 kg/ha (10 lb./acre) application. Cubed apple baits treated with BFC or 1-(3-pyridylmethyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl) urea (RH 787, Vacor) were also effective. The 2-diphenylacetyl-1,3-indandione (Diphacinone, DPN, Ramik-Brown) prepared bait did not perform as well as the other anticoagulants in these experiments. Prepared meal baits of RH 787 gave excellent results in laboratory trials; however this preparation failed to control pine voles in field plots.

Open Access
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Abstract

Beta-chloroethyl-methyl-bis-benzyloxy-silane (CGA 15281) was applied to 6 Eastern U.S. grown peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars. Thinning response varied considerably with cultivar, timing, concentration and year. Unpredictable and commercially unacceptable leaf abscission occurred with most cultivars during the three-year period. Adequate thinning was achieved without excessive leaf abscission (10% or less) with only one treatment on 3 cultivars (‘Redhaven’, ‘Loring’, and ‘Sunhigh’) during the 3-year period. Reproducibility between years was not good. Unpruned trees or long 2-year-old limbs lost a greater portion of fruit at the base of shoots and on the interior of the trees than trees pruned to a uniform shoot length. The thinning response to CGA 17856 (an analogue of CGA 15281) was compared to the same rate of CGA 15281 on 5 cultivars. A tendency to greater leaf abscission was observed with CGA 17856.

Open Access
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Abstract

A change in orchard culture caused a significant reduction in activity of pine voles (Microtus pinetorum Le Conte). Cultivations in May, July, and November were not as effective as 2 cultivations plus 2 residual herbicide treatments (July and November). A single cultivation in November caused a small but significant reduction in vole activity but the effect was short lived. A heavy annual residual herbicide treatment in July caused a small but significant reduction in vole activity. No cultural treatment resulted in adequate control by December of 3 consecutive years and toxic hand placed baits were required each year to reduce populations.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Hand placement of 2-Diphenylacetyl-1,3-indandone (Diphacinone, DPN) and [(chloro-4-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1] acetyl-2-dioxo-1-3-indane (Chlorophacinone, CPN) baits applied in 2 applications at ca 30 day intervals at 11.2 kg/ha (10 lbs/A) each were effective in the control of pine voles (Microtus pinetorum LeConte) in apple orchards. In a cultural experiment designed to control pine voles, one Diphacinone preparation gave near 100% control with one application in plots previously cultivated and treated with residual herbicide in July and November.

Open Access

Abstract

Airblast application of fertilizers, desiccating herbicides, or surfactants reduced fruit set and increased fruit size of ‘Redhaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batch]. The addition of the surfactant, aikylaryl polyoxyethylene glyco phosphate ester (Spray Aide), to ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) at rates from 0 ml/liter to 5 ml/liter did not increase thinning. When rates of ATS/ha remained constant, water volumes from 2338 Iiter/ha to 420 liter/ha did not affect thinning. Forty-six percent to 62% more flower buds developed on twigs from chemically thinned trees than on hand thinned trees. Most of this flower bud increase was on the 5 basipetal nodes of current season shoots. Treatment of the stigma, petals + anthers, peduncle, or calyx with ATS reduced fruit-set. Necrotic regions in the peduncle of some flowers could be seen under a microscope 48 hr after treatment. Flowers sprayed with DuPont WK or NH4NO3 + X-77, plus methylene blue (added as a tracer) had blue dye in the veins of the calyx, pedicle, and peduncle of some flowers after 24 hr.

Open Access

Abstract

Caged feeding tests of 77 Malus clones, representing 15 species and hybrid species, revealed 9 cultivars apparently less susceptible to feeding by pine voles than ‘Golden Delicious’. Malus X sublobata PI 286613 shoots were attacked least; other cultivars of special promise include ‘Charlotte’, ‘Hucker No. 1’, ‘N.Y. 11928’, ‘Robusta 5’, ‘Sissipuk’, and ‘Ivory’s Double Vigour’.

Open Access
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Abstract

Trunk looping of several apple cultivars on seedling roots reduced terminal shoot growth and trunk enlargement below the loop and increased root suckers. Growth was reduced most in the early years of tree growth. In the 5th, 6th, and 7th growing seasons, annual trunk enlargement was not affected, but growth suppression in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years reduced final trunk diameter measurements after seven seasons. Similarly, terminal shoot length was suppressed greatest in the early years and to a lesser extent in the 5th through the 7th growing seasons. Fruit number was unaffected by looping in the 5th growing season, but looping increased fruit number and fruit/cm2 trunk cross-sectional area in the 6th and 7th seasons in ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Starkrimson Delicious’, and ‘Northwest Greening’, but not ‘Stayman’.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Efficacy of several rodenticides was evaluated in laboratory and field tests. ZP Rodent Bait AG pellets gave greater mortality of pine (Microtus pinetorum) and meadow (Microtus pennsylvanicus) voles in field and laboratory trials than a similar-looking commercially available zinc phosphide (ZnP) pelleted formulation and a whole wheat and cracked corn formulation. Laboratory comparison of six new pelleted formulations (zinc phosphide, ZnP) revealed one that gave similar mortality as ZP Rodent Bait AG. Quintox (vitamin D3) gave average to excellent mortality of voles in laboratory trials, but very poor to fair control of voles in field trials.

Open Access

Terbacil applied to whole-spur `Delicious' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees reduced photosynthesis and fruit set. The addition of the surfactant X-77 to terbacil sprays increased fruit thinning and leaf injury. Terbacil sprays applied to leaves only (fruit covered with foil) were as effective as when applied to leaves plus fruit. Dipping fruit alone in a terbacil solution did not cause abscission. Shading trees for 4 days with 92% polypropylene shade material reduced fruit set =50%. Spraying trees with carbaryl reduced fruit set by 25%. The combination of shade + carbaryl spraying reduced fruit set by 89%. Chemical names used: l-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate (carbaryl); 3-tert- butyl-5-chloro-6-methyluracil (terbacil); 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon); alkaryl polyoxyethylene alcohols (X-77).

Free access