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  • Author or Editor: R. E. Byers x
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Abstract

The addition of a 70 second superior oil to Sevin (carbaryl; 1-naphthyl-N-methyl-carbamate) sprays enhanced the thinning effect on both spur ‘Golden Delicious’ and spur ‘Starkrimson Delicious’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Vydate (oxamyl; methyl N’, N’-dimethyl-N [(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]-l-thiooxamimidate) gave excellent thinning of spur ‘Golden Delicious’ without phytotoxic symptoms but increased fruit lenticel russeting. The addition of another oil ICI 411 F (17% surfactants) or 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn4,7 diol ethylene oxide adduct 65% by weight (Surfynol 465) to Sevin increased the thinning effect of Sevin on spur ‘Golden Delicious’. The Surfynol 465-Sevin combination also caused more russeting than most other Sevin combinations. The addition of Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K-30) and Sorbitol (Sorbo) did not alter the thinning effect of Sevin.

Open Access
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Abstract

Commercially prepared pelletized baits of 3-[3-(4‘bromo[1,1-biphenyl]-4-y1-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (Brodifacoum, BFC, ICI 581, Talon), 2-[(p-chlorophenyl)phenylacetyl]-1,3-indandione (Chlorophacinone, CPN, Rozol), and 2-diphenylacetyl-1,3-indandione (Diphacinone, DPN, Ramik-Brown) resulted in 93%, 86%, and 74% control, respectively, of meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, when broadcast in 2 late fall applications at a 21 day interval. A single hand placed treatment of these baits performed as well or better than the 2 broadcast treatments.

Open Access
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Abstract

Most pesticide recommendations for apple orchards have been based on a specified rate per hectare. These recommendations are based on dilute applications of materials in 3740 liters·ha−1 (400 gallons/acre) to trees in a “standard” orchard, which are about 6.1 m (20 ft) high, 7.0 m (23 ft) wide, and 10.7 m (35 ft) between rows (3, 6). Most orchards today do not conform to this standard, and many pesticides are applied at concentrations other than dilute.

Open Access
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Abstract

Pine vole, Microtus pinetorum LeConte, activity was reduced to very low levels with [(chloro-4-phenyl)-l-phenyl-1] acetyl-2-dioxo-l-3 indane (Chlorophacinone, CPN) ground cover spray at .2 kg/ha (.2 lb. per acre) and a CPN wax-grain pellet applied in two applications of 11.2 kg/ha (10 lb. per acre) each. Inadequate control of voles was obtained with traditional zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) treated apple and oat hand baits, CPN treated cracked com, CPN wax blocks, CPN apple baits, and 2-diphenylacetyl-l,3-indandone (Diphacinone, DPN) meal pellets. Ground cover sprays of ethyl 4-(methylthio)-m-tolyl isopropylphosphor-amdate (Nemacur) or methyl N′ N′-dimethyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]-1-thiooxamimidate (Vydate) also did not give adequate vole control.

Open Access
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Abstract

A rapid method for assessing the presence of pine voles (Microtus pinetorum LeConte) in experimental plots was based on an apple activity test. This test was easily adapted to surveying the effect of grower applied treatments.

Chlorophacinone (CPN) was superior to Endrin ground sprays for pine vole control in an orchard where Endrin had been used annually for over 10 years. Low levels of CPN at 0.112, 0.056, and 0.028 kg/ha (0.1, 0.5, 0.025 lb./acre) did not give adequate control of pine voles, and 0.224 kg/ha (0.2 lb/acre) appeared to be the lowest possible dosage level for control.

Open Access
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Abstract

Stems of 3 peach, 3 apple, and 11 apple rootstock cultivars were compared to ‘Golden Delicious’ apple stems for differences in susceptibility to attack by pine voles, (Microtus pinetorum LeConte) in cage-trials. ‘Ambergem’, ‘Glohaven’ and ‘Elberta’ peach and ‘Halford’ peach seedling stems were significantly less damaged than ‘Golden Delicious’ apple. No differences in susceptibility were detected among the apple scion and rootstock cultivars. In an interplanted peach and apple orchard apple trees were more severly damaged by voles than peach trees.

Open Access
Authors: and

In 1995, BAS-125W applied at 125 to 500 mg/liter 23 days after full bloom (AFB) to `Starkrimson Delicious'/MM 106 and MM111 reduced average shoot weight and length of the longest shoots in the top and scaffold limbs by 50% at the highest rate. The number of nodes on the lower 40 cm of each shoot was increased by 1.8 times by the growth retardant. The number of pruning cuts, pruning time, and pruning weight per tree was reduce by 30%, 20%, and 29%. Fruit diameter, color, soluble solids, starch, fruit weight, and fruit number per tree were not altered by BAS-125 W. Growth suppression appeared to be greater on trees with heavier crop loads. In 1996, BAS-125W applied at 250 mg/liter 8 days after full bloom was more effective than when applied 19 days AFB to `Starkrimson Delicious'/MM 106 and MM111. Multiple applications of two, three, and four sprays to the same trees at 3-week intervals further reduced shoot growth with each application. Four applications reduced shoot weight by 72%, shoot length by 60%, and basal shoot diameter by 25%, and the number of pruning cuts, pruning time, and pruning weight per tree was reduce by 75%, 55%, and 80%, respectively. Thinning activity of NAA, Sevin, or Accel was not affected by tank mixed sprays with BAS-125W when applied to Gala/M.27 trees 20 days AFB. Tank mixing BAS-125W with combinations of Vydate + Accel or Carbaryl + Accel + Oil did not alter fruit thinning of Fuji/M.27 (at 10 mm fruit diameter). In one experiment, BAS-125 may have potentiated thinning by ethephon and NAA 10 days AFB in another experiment. BAS-125 W sprays at petal fall + 1 and 2 weeks later significantly suppressed % infection by fireblight, Erwinia amylovora, in inoculated shoots. In addition, BAS-125W reduced canker length in the first-year growth in shoots inoculated 2 weeks after treatment.

Free access
Authors: and

Peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) BatSch.] blossom-thinned by hand were overthinned due to poor fruit set of the remaining flowers; however, their yield was equivalent to trees hand-thinned 38 or 68 days after full bloom (AFB). Blossom-thinned trees had three times the number of flower buds per unit length of shoot and had more than two times the percentage of live buds after a March freeze that had occurred at early bud swell the following spring. Blossom-thinned trees were more vigorous; their pruning weight increased 45%. For blossom-thinned trees, the number of flowers per square centimeter limb cross-sectional area (CSA) was two times that of hand-thinned trees and four times that of the control trees for the next season. Fruit set of blossom-thinned trees was increased four times. Flower buds on the bottom half of shoots on blossom-thinned trees were more cold tolerant than when hand-thinned 68 days AFB. Fruit set per square centimeter limb CSA was 400% greater the following year on blossom-thinned trees compared to controls. Removing strong upright shoots on scaffold limbs and at renewal points early in their development decreased dormant pruning time and weight and increased red pigmentation of fruit at the second picking. The number of flower buds per unit shoot length and percent live buds after the spring freeze were negatively related to crop density the previous season for trees that had been hand-thinned to varying crop densities at 48 days AFB. According to these results, blossom thinning and fruit thinning to moderate crop densities can influence the cold tolerance of peach flower buds in late winter.

Free access
Authors: and

Abstract

A combination of succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide), (2-chloroethyl)-phosphonic acid (ethephon) and straight chain fatty alcohols (Off-Shoot-T85) or methyl esters of straight chain fatty acids (Off-Shoot-0) applied 30 days after bloom to nonbearing ‘Topred Delicious’ apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) induced spur development on current season growth, increased the number of flower buds per tree, and suppressed terminal growth, one-year-old shoot diameter, and trunk diameter. The combination of daminozide and ethephon did not induce spurs to develop on current season growth; however, slightly enlarged buds on one-year-old growth flowered the spring following treatment.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

Pine vole, Microtus pinetorum LeConte, activity in an apple orchard was reduced by cultivation of a 4 m-wide strip down the tree row. Bare-ground-culture using a single annual application of Simazine plus Amitrol (1964-71) or Paraquat (1972-73) herbicide for 10 years reduced pine vole activity.

Open Access