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  • Author or Editor: Peng Wang x
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Physiological, biochemical and anatomical indexes were investigated for rose hardiness. It was found that bound/free water ratio, proline accumulation, photosynthetic rate, palisade/spongy tissue ratio, and lignification of winter-acclimated stems were heavily influenced by the temperature causing stem browning. Spongy cell volume and stem tenderness were inversely related to winter hardiness. Data generated from this research demonstrated that catalase stability, TTC reduction rate at 0°C, total photosynthetic rate, stem pith ray number, and leaf wax thickness are good indicators for rose hardiness to freezing temperatures. Two compound indexes were developed through the main component analysis. Based on the results obtained from 12 tested cultivars, these indexes are ideal to quantify hardiness of rose germplasm.

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Cold tolerance/resistance of 41 hazelnut hybrid strains was investigated by evaluating electrolyte seepage velocity, recovering growth, and tissue browning for the tested cold temperatures. Results demonstrated that electrolyte seepage velocity of all tested strains was faster as temperatures dropped down. The S curve relationship was found between seepage velocity and temperature. Turning point temperature used as the half deadly injured index (LT50) was developed using a logistic equation. The mean LT50 and temperature causing tissue browning were excellent indexes to predict cold tolerance/resistance. After treated at –30 or –35 °C and then evaluated for their recovering growth, 10 cold-resistant hybrid hazelnut strains were developed. These hybrids are being tested for regional adoption and will be released as commercial cultivars.

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Based on our investigation of hazelnut germplasm and Thompson's evaluation system for European hazelnuts, an in-depth study on character description of hazelnut germplasm was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Eighty characters were evaluated for the 58 tested species. It was found that eight characters should be eliminated from Thompson's system, such as annual branch length and hair, lentical color, and serration depth. The best leaf sampling position, sample volumes for quantitative characters, and scoring standards were also determined. Therefore, an advanced evaluation system for hazelnut germplasm was developed. The advanced system is easier and simpler, and will significantly expedite systematical studies of hazelnut germplasm.

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Selenium (Se) fertilizer has a good effect on many field crops, but there are few reports on the application of Se fertilizer on citrus. We investigated the effects of 0 mg/L (CK, water treatment), 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, and 200 mg/L sodium selenite aqueous solutions on the growth, nutrition, and fruit quality of 15-year-old citrus unshiu (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Succosa). The results showed that a low concentration of Se fertilizer promoted the growth and development of the citrus plan, and a high concentration of Se fertilizer was found to slightly inhibit the growth and development of the plant. Among the different treatment groups, 150 mg/L selenium fertilizer showed have the best effect on these evaluated parameters. The results thus suggest that 150 mg/L of Se fertilizer promotes the formation of chlorophyll in the leaves of the test plant and increases the longitudinal and transverse diameter of the fruits and weight of single fruit, significantly enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves, promoting the absorption of nutrients in the leaves, increasing the contents of total sugar and vitamin, and decreasing the acidity in the fruits and the pericarp thickness. It also promoted the accumulation of the total selenium content in the leaves and fruits and consequently improved the quality of the fruits. These results showed that appropriate concentration of Se treatment can improve the activity of antioxidant enzymes to enhance plant stress resistance, regulate the content of sugar and acid in fruits, and improve the quality of fruits.

Open Access

Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of Kongpo Monkshood (Aconitum kongboense L.) in Motuo, Tibet Plateau. From 70 accessions of three populations, 10 out of 100 informative ISSR primers were chosen for polymorphism analysis. Percentage of polymorphic bands was 50% to 66.67% with a mean of 58.42%. The effective number of alleles (Ne) was between 1.545 (population 3) and 1.586 (population 2), and the mean value was 1.564; the Nei’s gene diversity (h) ranged from 0.315 to 0.327 with the average value of 0.320; the value of Shannon’s information index (I) ranged from 0.459 to 0.478, with the mean of 0.469. Based on molecular data, cluster analysis classified the 70 cultivars into three groups. Most accessions were related to the geographical origin and their genetic backgrounds. Bayesian structure and PCoA analysis were consistent with the dendrogram result. Based on the analysis, it will provide a reference for Kongpo Monkshood breeding purposes and contribute to identification, rational exploitation, and conservation of germplasms.

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To analyze the evolutionary level of Prunus mira Koehne (Prunus mira Koehne Kov et. Kpst), 15 kinds of pollen grains from five altitudes were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study demonstrates that pollen morphous P. mira has high variation; specifically, individuals from higher altitudes are much more evolved than those from lower altitudes. This is the first time the pollen morphology of P. mira has been systematically illustrated. Furthermore, 12 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers generated clear and repeatable bands among all individuals based on RAPD; 107 bands ranging from 200 bp to 2000 bp were generated with an average of 8.92 bands per primer. Thus, the RAPD technique proved to be a powerful tool to reveal variation on P. mira. This study provides comprehensive information for genetic diversity of P. mira from different altitudes.

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To describe the influence of different pecan seedling rootstocks on drought stress resistance, 12 rootstocks of ‘87MX1-2.2’, ‘87MX5-1.7’, ‘Elliott’, ‘Frutoso’, ‘Giles’, ‘Major’, ‘Moore’, ‘Peruque’, ‘Posey’, ‘Riverside’, ‘San Felipe’, and ‘VC1-68’ were selected as rootstock treatments for grafting. In addition, the experimental materials for the grafted young ‘Pawnee’ tree treatments included the pressure-volume technique (PV technique) and cutting shoot transpiration methods to plot the PV and the cutting shoot transpiration curves, and the parameters calculated from the two curves were used to analyze the data produced by the subordinate function and cluster dendrogram methods. The results revealed that the different seedling rootstock treatments influenced the ‘Pawnee’ grafted trees to varying degrees on aspects of drought resistance, the ability to save water, the modulation of osmosis, and the sensitivity of the stomatal response. The order of drought tolerance for these different pecan seedling rootstock treatments from high to low was as follows: ‘Posey’, ‘Peruque’, ‘Riverside’, ‘87MX5-1.7’, ‘VC1-68’, ‘Elliott’, ‘87MX1-2.2’, ‘San Felipe’, ‘Moore’, ‘Major’, ‘Giles’, and ‘Frutoso’.

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Pecan cuttings are difficult for rooting. This study describes the pecan hardwood rooting process based on anatomic characteristics to understand root formation mechanisms of pecan cuttings. The expressed proteins of different periods during the adventitious rooting process of pecan seedling hardwood cuttings were identified and analyzed to evaluate the rooting mechanism. The expressed proteins of pecan cutting seedlings were also compared with other cultivar cuttings during the rooting period. Pecan seedling cuttings were developed at different air and substrate temperatures to induce root formation. Adventitious root formation of pecan hardwood cuttings was described, and the phloem at the base of the prepared cuttings was selected as the sample for the differential protein analysis. The results showed that adventitious root formation of pecan hardwood cuttings was the only product of callus differentiation, which originated from the cells of the cambium or vascular ray parenchyma. Such adventitious root primordia were developed from those calluses that formed the regenerative structure, and the expressed proteins during the adventitious rooting of pecan hardwood cutting were identified and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight–mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to evaluate the rooting mechanism. Eight differentially expressed proteins were found in the rooting periods, and 15 differential proteins were found by comparing pecan cutting types, which were analyzed by peptide mass fingerprinting homology. The results show that the primordial cells were differentiated from the meristematic cells. Furthermore, the differentially expressed proteins contained energy metabolism proteins, adversity stress proteins, and signal transmission proteins. The energy metabolism-related proteins were adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase, photosynthesis-related proteins, and enolase. The adversity-stress proteins containing heat shock-related proteins and signal transmission proteins were mainly cytochrome enzymes and heme-binding proteins. Adventitious root formation of pecan cultivar hardwood cuttings was difficult. More trials should be performed from the potential aspects of high defensive protection and phloem morphologic structure.

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To find the characteristics of somatic embryogenesis of orchids and elucidate the mechanism, we had previously established an efficient plant regeneration system via somatic embryogenesis in Dendrobium candidum Wall ex Lindl. In this study, a detailed cytological investigation was carried out on the initiation and developmental process of somatic embryogenesis. Based on our observations, the somatic embryogenesis in D. candidum originated from the transition of an embryonic callus cell to the initial somatic embryo cell, and the somatic embryos initiated from those cells. During the transition process, condensation and devacuolation successively occurred in the cytoplasm of the embryonic callus cells, giving rise to the formation of a typical initial somatic embryo cell with dense cytoplasm and a clear nucleus. One of the two pathways in somatic embryogenesis is the single-cell-derived somatic embryo which is generated from an inner initial somatic embryo cell in embryonic callus and develops into a globular somatic embryo in a way similar to zygotic embryogenesis and then keeps developing into a protocorm-like body (PLB). The other is a multiple-cell-derived somatic embryo which is generated from peripheral grouped initial somatic cells in embryonic calli and directly forms globular embryo or multicellular somatic proembryo, lacking the typical early stages of embryogenesis. Both pathways were observed in the somatic embryogenesis system, indicating that the culture system in D. candidum can be a useful tool for investigating the mechanisms underlying orchid embryogenesis.

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