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Abstract

The influence of the stock plant (mother plant, donor plant) has long been known to exert a profound effect on subsequent propagation capability of its propagules. Both treatments applied to the stock plant and the environment under which the stock plant is grown have a strong influence on subsequent propagation. These effects may include an increase in size or number of cuttings and improved root regeneration by cuttings taken from such stock plants. Nutrition, light, temperature, genotype, plant growth regulator applications, physical manipulations, and season of the year have all been reported to influence macropropagation efforts. Similarly, the influence of these same factors often has been reported to have a strong effect on the performance of propagated explants taken from stock plants so treated. From the early work of Kraus and Kraybill (18) in 1918, we can see that the carbohydrate: nitrogen ratio was shown to be an important factor in the rooting of tomato cuttings. Micronutrition of stock plants also has been given some attention, as exemplified by the work of Weiser and Blaney (25). Dhillon (5) also has pointed out that nutrient effects often are modified by light. Reduced light intensity has been reported to enhance the rooting of dahlia, forsythia, and weigelia (3, 19). Etiolation, or extreme light reduction, frequently has been reported to also improve rooting (9. 17). Other authors have reported that reduced stock plant light intensities can lead to better rooting of the cuttings of several species (1, 11, 21). Increases in endogenous auxin level generally are believed to occur under reduced light, thus enhancing rooting (20). Whally (26) has reviewed literature on photoperiod effects on rooting of numerous ornamental species. Keeping stock plants in a vegetative condition by the use of night interruption or day extension has enabled researchers to provide a continuous supply of cuttings (14, 15, 24). Bachelard and Stowe (2) and von Hentig (16) have reported direct effects of stock plant photoperiod on the rooting of cuttings.

Open Access
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Abstract

Good horticultural educators are indeed a rare breed, based on the dearth of publications cited under “Education” in Hort-Science indexes. The data presented in Tables 1 and 2 are cause for serious concern in my opinion. Furthermore, the picture becomes even more dismal when the figures are examined closely.

Open Access

Platanthera praeclara, commonly called western prairie fringed orchid, is a showy forb native to seven states and one Canadian province. The species had resisted previous attempts at propagation. Small, isolated populations in the sandhills region of western Nebraska are disjunct and visitation by natural pollen vectors appears to be in decline. Modern cultivation practices and other habitat encroachment factors, including urban development, recreational activities, and natural fluctuations in seasonal water availability all have the potential to exert pressure on current populations. Federal and state permits have allowed a limited hand-pollination study to be conducted on federal land. Hand-pollinated plants showed a greater fruit production compared to control plants receiving no human pollination assistance. Germination studies were conducted using aseptic in vitro techniques. The microscopic seeds possess testa that are extremely hard and resistant to liquid absorption, which presents challenges to germination in vitro. These challenges will be discussed. Alternating cold treatments with room temperatures appeared necessary to promote protocorm development after germination. Three media tested produced varying germination responses. Juvenile plants produced through micropropagation can offer propagules for possible future reintroduction efforts of this protected species.

Free access

Research was conducted in Feb. 1999 to study the effects of including silver thiosulfate (STS), gibberellic acid (GA3), or both in the forcing solution on rooting of softwood cuttings produced by forced dormant woody plant species. The cuttings were dipped for 10 s in 2000 ppm indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 2000 ppm indolebutyric acid (IBA). High percentages of rooting were observed in the two woody plant species examined. Root number and length of the new growth of Cornus alba and Euonymus alatus forced in a forcing solution containing the basic forcing solution treatment (8-HQC at 200 mg·L-1 + 2% sucrose), the STS treatment, or the combination treatment of STS + GA3 were not significantly different. However, treating the dormant stems of the two woody plant species examined in a forcing solution containing only GA3 led to fewer and shorter roots when compared to all other treatments. Applying either IAA or IBA to the new softwood growth led to similar root length and number for both species. This forcing solution approach provides an attractive alternative for propagating woody plants during winter months.

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Research was conducted to further modify the forcing solution system in order to expedite the propagation of woody plants, such as Spiraea canescens, Lonicera maakii, and Cornus alba. Time of immersion in solutions containing 5 mM silver thiosulfate (STS) was compared with the basic forcing solution reported by Yang and Read (1989), a solution containing 200 mg 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate per liter and 2% sucrose. Other treatments employed were gibberellic acid (GA3) 50 mg per liter for 24 h and a combination of STS and GA3 for the same amount of time. Increasing the time in STS solution up to 24 h led to higher percent budbreak and shorter time to budbreak for all the three species examined. The combination of STS and GA3 was the most effective treatment overall in reducing time of budbreak and increasing percent of budbreak. All STS treatments studied showed similar responses in shoot elongation. However, treatments with GA3 alone, and in combination with STS showed more than a doubling in shoot length compared to all STS treatments studied and the control. Implications based on SEM observations will be presented.

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The effects of organic compounds most commonly used for orchid micropropagation and the physical condition of the medium were investigated for the development of young temperate orchid protocorms. Separate experiments were conducted with five different temperate orchid species: Dactylorhiza fuchsii, Dactylorhiza maculata, Dactylorhiza majalis, Orchis morio, and Ophrys lutea. Small 2- to 4-mm-wide protocorms were placed in baby food jars (three per jar) containing 50 ml modified FAST medium (Szendrak and R. Eszki, 1993) supplemented with one of eight treatments in a split-plot design with five replications. Both the liquid medium (gyrotary shaker, 125 rpm) and the gelled medium (8 g agar/L) were supplemented with one of the following compounds: 2 g peptone/L; 100 ml coconut water/L; 1 g casein+1 g lactalbumin/L; and 10 g glucose/L as a treatment with a defined compound. All treatments were kept in the dark at 25°C. The number of protocorms/jar were counted weekly over a 6-week-long period and the size and fresh weight of protocorms were measured at the end of the 6th week. In most cases, the liquid medium increased proliferation and the size of the protocorms. However, generally after the 4th week on liquid medium, the development of the protocorms often stopped, but it continued on the gelled medium till the end of the experimental period. The media supplemented with the undefined organic compounds showed a much better effect than the medium supplemented with glucose. Generally peptone and coconut water led to the best development of protocorms, but this varied with species. The development of protocorms into plantlets was normal in all cases.

Free access

Chimeral African violets do not come true when propagated from leaf cuttings in conventional or micropropagation systems. Chimeral plants are normally propagated by rooting suckers from mother plants. Premium prices are charged for chimeral plants due to the low numbers produced.

Reports in the African violet Society Magazine indicate that chimeral plants can be started by rooting flower peduncles. However, only one or two new plants are generated from each peduncle.

Peduncle tissue was grown in vitro to produce large numbers of plants from chimeral African violets. Ratios of plants with true-to-type vs. off-type flowers varied by cultivar and tissue used. The potential use of this technology will be discussed.

Free access

The temperate native terrestrial orchids are endangered species. Their propagation from seeds poses specific problems. It is well known that orchid seeds are devoid of endosperm and in nature they need microscopic fungi in a symbiotic relationship for germination. We developed a successful asymbiotic in vitro culture method for germinating seeds of several temperate orchid species and for maintaining the cultures of young plantlets. The medium used for both germination and seedling culture was a modified FAST medium. Seeds were surface-disinfested for 10 minutes in a 10% calcium hypochlorite solution. After sowing, the cultures were kept under dark condition at 10–12°C for 4 weeks. After that the cultures remained in the dark, but the temperature was raised to 25–26°C until germination occurred. Thereafter cultures required alternating seasonal temperatures: 25–26°C from the beginning of April to the end of September and 17–19°C from October to March. For the development of the young plantlets natural dispersed light and prevailing day-length was favorable. After 2 years of aseptic culture they were suitable for transfer ex vitro. Different stages of seed germination and plant development were observed using a scanning electron microscope and will be included in this presentation. Further observation of the effects of different environmental factors is currently under investigation.

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Authors: and

A certain period of cold is needed to break bud dormancy for almost all woody species. A pre-forcing bleach soak has been demonstrated to at least partially replace this requirement (Yang and Read, 1989). Therefore, new softwood growth can be produced in the off-season. Such supple softwood growth is excellent material to be used either as explants for in vitro culture, or as cuttings for macropropagation of woody species. Further studies on pre-forcing bleach soaks were conducted to investigate optimum concentration and duration of soak, and to find the most suitable depth of bleach solution soak, in order to maximize the breaking of bud dormancy. Optimum bud break was obtained by soaking the basal 1/3 of dormant stems in 10% bleach solution for 10 minutes prior to forcing. Soaking dormant woody stems in alcohol solutions prior to placing stems in the forcing solution was also studied. The alcohol soak had negative effects on bud break of spirea, although it showed positive effects for lilac and privet.

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Authors: and

BA, IBA and GA3 were incorporated into softwood tissues to be cultured in vitro or rooted as cuttings by adding the plant growth regulators (PGR) at various concentrations to a forcing solution containing 200 mg/l 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate and 2% sucrose. BA and GA3 helped break bud dormancy in autumn-collected stems and increased percent bud-break. IBA inhibited bud break and shoot elongation. Rooting of forced softwood cuttings was enhanced by IBA in the forcing solution, while GA3 inhibited the rooting of plant species tested. When dormant stems were forced with periodic additions of BA (10 mg/l) in the forcing solution, in vitro shoot proliferation was enhanced. However, inclusion of GA3 in the forcing solution reduced shoot proliferation. A pre-forcing NaOCl soak and a pre-forcing treatment with wetting agents accelerated bud break, size and number of shoots available for both micro- and macro-propagation of the woody plant species tested. The forcing solution protocol described is an effective PGR delivery system and it can be used by the propagator to extend the season for obtaining softwood growth suitable for use as in vitro explants or softwood cuttings.

Free access