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  • Author or Editor: Patrick J. Conner x
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Nineteen pecan (Carya illinoinensis) clones were evaluated over a period of 18 years in a test orchard located in southern Georgia. Clones tested were primarily U.S. Department of Agriculture selections, but two grower-discovered cultivars, Jubilee and Surprize, were also trialed. Annual yields were measured for each tree in the test throughout the test period and the alternate bearing intensity of each cultivar was calculated. Average annual in-shell nut production in years 1–10 ranged from 12 lb in the precocious USDA 76-4-41 to 0 lb in the non-precocious USDA 72-8-4. Wide variation was seen in nut production of trees in years 11–18, averaging from 10 to 60 lb nut yield per year. A subsample of nuts was taken from each tree annually and percent kernel, nuts per pound, specific gravity, and nut volume were determined. Significant differences were found between clones for each of these traits. Differences were also found for the presence of damage from pecan scab [Fusicladium effusum (synonym Cladosporium caryigenum)] and black pecan aphid (Melanocallis caryaefoliae). Most clones were not acceptable for use in Georgia due to small nut size or poor kernel quality, but two clones merit further testing in this region. USDA 70-3-34 produced a large nut with good quality and scab resistance, but needs to be evaluated with mechanical crop thinning to improve kernel quality in high crop-set years. USDA 74-1-12 produced good yields of excellent quality, medium-sized pecans and should be trialed with greater tree numbers. Several other clones were found to have traits of interest to pecan breeding programs including: pecan scab resistance, large nut size, and high kernel percentage. Results of this trial suggest that cultivar development programs in Georgia should place greater selection emphasis on large nut size.

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Fifteen pecan (Carya illinoinensis) genotypes were evaluated over a period of 20 years in a test orchard located near Tifton, Ga. Genotypes tested included seedling selections (`Candy', `Maramec', `Melrose', `Moreland', `Sumner', and `Western Schley'), USDA releases (`Creek', `Kanza', `Kiowa', and `Pawnee'), and USDA selections (USDA 41-19-20, USDA 53-11-139, USDA 53-9-1, USDA 57-7-22, and USDA 64-11-17). Actual yields were measured for each tree in the test throughout the test period and the alternate bearing intensity (I) of each cultivar was calculated. Average annual nut production in years 1 to 10 ranged from 19 lb (8.6 kg) in the precocious cultivar `Candy' to 6 lb (2.7 kg) in the nonprecocious cultivar `Melrose'. Although a wide variation was seen in the average yield of clones in years 11 to 20, differences were not significant. A subsample of nuts was taken for each tree annually and percent kernel, nuts/lb, specific gravity, and nut volume were determined. Significant differences were found between clones for each of these traits. Most clones were not acceptable for commercial use in Georgia due to small nut size, poor kernel quality, or excessive alternate bearing. Recommended clones include: `Pawnee', which produced large nuts of excellent quality with an early harvest date, `Sumner', which produced large nuts of moderate quality with a late harvest date, and `Kiowa', a precocious bearer of large, good-quality nuts.

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