Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Nina L. Bassuk x
  • HortScience x
Clear All Modify Search

Effects of stockplant etiolation, stem banding, exogenous auxin, and catechol on the rooting response of softwood cuttings of paperbark maple (Acer griseum Pax.) were studied. Etiolated cuttings rooted better than light-grown cuttings, while stem banding did not affect rooting percentage (light-grown, 10%; light-grown + banding, 18%; etiolated, 41%; etiolated + banding, 37%). IBA did not promote, but catechol inhibited rooting (control, 31%; IBA, 37%; catechol, 17%; IBA + catechol, 21%). Root number was increased by IBA and unaffected by catechol. The distance from the cutting base to the first emerged root was measured as an indication of auxin toxicity. IBA interacted with etiolation and stem banding to increase this distance, which was greater in catechol-treated cuttings. Chemical names used: 1,2-benzenedio1 (catechol); 1H-indole-3-butanoic acid (IBA).

Free access

The effects of silver thiosulfate (STS) on stored and freshly made cuttings of `Royalty' rose (Rosa hybrids) were examined in relation to rooting and subsequent budbreak. STS pretreatment at 0.5 mm during storage stimulated budbreak but decreased the percentage of cuttings that rooted and the number of roots. IBA at 4.9 to 9.8 mm inhibited budbreak but this effect was partially reversed by STS. Spraying the cuttings with 1.0 mm STS once daily during the first 5 days of the rooting period also reduced rooting but prevented IBA-induced leaf senescence. Ethephon and spermine, each applied at 0.5 mm before rooting, had no effect on rooting or budbreak. Chemical names used: (2-chloroethyl)-phosphonic acid (ethephon); indole butyric acid (IBA); N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl) -l,4-buanediamine (spermine).

Free access

Softwood shoots of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) rootstocks M.9 and MM.106 were banded with Velcro for up to 20 days before cuttings were propagated. Percent rooting and the number of roots per cutting were significantly improved by banding for 10 to 20 days, with and without IBA application. As the duration of stem banding increased from 0 to 20 days, percent rooting and the number of roots of both M.9 and MM.106 cuttings increased linearly or curvilinearly. Stem banding also stimulated budbreak of cuttings. In M.9, banding resulted in a higher survival rate and increased new shoot growth of transplanted cuttings after 4 months. Percent budbreak and new shoot growth were highly correlated with the number of roots per cutting in both cultivars. The effects of stem banding on budbreak and subsequent growth of the cuttings were largely due to the enhanced rooting of cuttings. Chemical names used: 1H-indole3-butyric acid (IBA).

Free access

New shoot growth of Carpinus betulus `fastigiata' was treated with stockplant etiolation and stem banding treatments and sampled for anatomical study at intervals over a 16-week period of greening following etiolation. Shading effects on the anatomy of the stem were also investigated. Numerous anatomical changes were noted with stem age and stockplant treatment. Among these were etiolation effects on the lignification of the secondary xylem, thickness of the periderm, and an increase in the percentage of sclereid-free gaps in the perivascular sclerenchyma, Stem banding increased the widths of the cortex and pith. Concomitant propagation studies revealed significant etiolation, shading, and banding effects on rooting percentages and root numbers. Using multiple linear regression methods rooting capacity was modelled best by linear combinations of the widths of the pith, non-lignified secondary xylem, cortical parenchyma and periderm, as well as the percentage of gaps in the sclerenchymatic sheath remaining non-sclerified. It is proposed that the development of sclereids in potential rooting sites reduces rooting potential. The exclusion of light during initial shoot development retards sclereid development by up to 3 months following treatment, which correlates well with observed increases in the rooting potential of etiolated and/or banded stems.

Free access

Three experiments were undertaken to examine the effect of stockplant etiolation, shading, and stem banding, prior to cutting propagation, on the auxin dose-response of rooting in stem cuttings of Carpinus betulus `fastigiata'. A 2 × 2 factorial of etiolation and banding utilized stockplants forced in a greenhouse, etiolated for 1 week and banded with Velcro™ for 1 month. In a separate study shading was applied up the time of harvesting cuttings. IBA was applied to cuttings as an aqueous ethanol quick dip in concentrations ranging from 0 to 80 mM. Rooting percentage and number were best described, up to a peak response, by a linear function proportional to the logarithm of applied IBA. The inhibition of rooting by supra-optimal IBA was directly proportional to IBA concentration. Cuttings prepared from shoots which had been etiolated or banded rooted better at low IBA and at their respective optimal IBA levels. Cuttings from shoots receiving both etiolation and banding yielded higher rooting percentages and more roots per rooted cutting on average. Etiolation and banding served to increase both initial and maximum rooting capacities, and to reduce the sensitivity of cuttings to supraoptimal auxin-induced inhibition of adventitious root initiation. The auxin dose-response interacted with shading to yield the best rooting at 95% shade and 3.7 mM IBA.

Free access

Four techniques for compaction amelioration were studied: 1) Vertical drainage panels; 2) vertical gravel-filled sump drains; 3) soil trenches filled with sandy loam; and 4) peat amended back fill. The control was backfilled with existing soil on the site. Vertical drainage mats and vertical gravel-filled sump drains were shown to increase O2% in surrounding soil; however, all O2 levels regardless of treatment were above what is considered limiting. Shoot and root growth of Pyrus calleryana `Redspire' was greatest for treatments that alleviated mechanical impedance (soil trenches and amended back fill) and least for treatments that did not (controls and vertical drains). Vertical drainage mats which alleviated mechanical impedance to a lesser degree showed intermediate growth.

Free access

Landscape trees are frequently planted in heavily compacted soils, such as around newly constructed buildings or in urban areas. Under such conditions, trees frequently die, or decline prematurely. Techniques for ameliorating these conditions were studied: vertical drainage mat panels, gravel-filled sumps, soil trenching and peat-amended backfill. Acer saccharum Marsh. `Seneca Chief, ` a species sensitive to compaction stresses, and the less sensitive Pyrus calleryana Decne. `Red Spire' were planted in a compacted clay loam. Shoot growth, root distribution and soil oxygen levels were measured over two growing seasons. Oxygen levels varied with treatment, but were not limiting to root growth. Shoot growth of pears was greatest for soil trenches. Except for the gravel-filled sumps, all other treatments also showed increased shoot growth compared to controls. Maple mortality was generally high and inversely correlated with field drainage.

Free access

Abstract

Only a few species are capable of colonizing extreme environments, whereas more moderate environments can support many more. The diversity of species in a habitat is thus controlled by the environment, whether by soil fertility, altitude or any other factor. This diversity reflects the number of species adapted to grow in a habitat, and the nature of this adaptation must be examined in light of the physiological effect of the environmental factors making up the habitat, and their variation in time and space (11).

Open Access

Growth and physiological characteristics were evaluated in autografted and reciprocally grafted plants of Prunus avium L. ×pseudocerasus Lindl. `Colt' and Prunus cerasus L. `Meteor'. Containerized plants were grown for 150 days in a greenhouse under either well-watered or water-stressed conditions. Both the scion and rootstock influenced growth (relative growth rate, R̄), morphological [leaf area : root surface area (LARSA) and specific leaf area (SLA)], and physiological (mean net assimilation rate, Ē) characteristics of grafted plants. Regardless of the watering regime, plants with `Meteor' scions and `Colt' rootstocks maintained higher R̄ than plants with `Colt' scions and `Meteor' rootstocks. This enhanced growth occurred as a result of higher Ē. Measurements on water-stressed plants also showed that the graft combination of `Meteor' on `Colt' had the lowest LARSA, while the reciprocal combination of `Colt' on `Meteor' had the highest. Differences in LARSA among water-stressed plants primarily reflected changes in SLA, as influenced by both rootstock and scion, and not in partitioning of dry weight between these organs.

Free access

Four each of landscape-sized Fraxinus Pennsylvania Marsh. (green ash), Quercus coccinea Muenchh. (scarlet oak), Corylus colurna L. (Turkish hazelnut) and Syringa reticulata Hara `Ivory Silk' (tree lilac) were established on a rhizotron in Ithaca, New York, and root and shoot growth characteristics were observed throughout 1992. Root growth did not begin on any species before bud break. Green ash, scarlet oak and Turkish hazelnut exhibited recurrent shoot growth. Most root growth occurred during periods of bud rest, although no marked antagonism between shoot and root growth was evident. Green ash root growth was synchronous with shoot growth. The root harvest zone of green ash and tree lilac contained higher root length densities, and roots contained within appeared less suberized than that of Turkish hazelnut or scarlet oak. Root spread: crown spread ratio was greatest for Turkish hazelnut. Little root growth occurred on any species after fall leaf drop or when soil temperatures were below 5C. Implications for transplanting are discussed.

Free access