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  • Author or Editor: Nels R. Benson x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

When ‘Golden Delicious’ apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) Ca concentration was depressed by 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 3 sprays of Ca(NO3)2 increased fruit Ca concentration and visibly reduced fruit pitting and internal breakdown. TIBA application at intervals from full bloom stopped Ca accumulation in the skin, but not in the flesh. Consequently, it appears that Ca moves into the flesh for a longer period after bloom, but at a slower rate than it does into the skin. TIBA was the only one of several growth regulators used that reduced fruit Ca concentration. Although within a given year Ca was associated with pitting, low-Ca fruit did not pit every year. Apparently, low Ca predisposes fruit to pitting, but pit development is associated with unknown factors.

Open Access

Abstract

Symptoms of 2,4-D injury were observed on apple and pear trees following commercial herbicide application. This was thought to be due to absorption from the soil. 2,4-D was found to move easily into orchard soils when applied to soil columns and irrigated. Concentrations in excess of 0.5 ppm occurred. Apple trees were damaged by this concentration. 2,4-D is readily inactivated in moist soil or on a moist soil surface. Less than one week is required for deactivation. Although field observations always indicated injury occurred when both 2,4-D and paraquat were applied together, laboratory and greenhouse studies indicated that paraquat did not increase 2,4-D movement or slow its deactivation.

Open Access