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- Author or Editor: Mikal E. Saltveit Jr. x
- Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
Standing freshly harvested 21-cm asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.) in 50 ml of 1 mg·liter−1 to 10 g·liter−1 aqueous glyphosate solutions significantly decreased toughening and the amount of fiber and lignin in spears stored at 2.5°C for 10 or 20 days. The effect increased with storage time and concentration, but decreased with distance from the cut end. Depending on the time of harvest and length of storage, 1 g·liter−1 glyphosate increased the usable portion of the spear from 40% to 60%. Chemical name used: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate).
Procedures are presented for incorporating the estimated variances from an experimental population into the calculation of parameters required to design experiments which will be able to detect specified mean differences among treatments within the population. Relationships between the estimated variances and the number of replicates per treatment and the number of apples per replicate were investigated using theoretical populations constructed from pressure test data from ‘McIntosh’ and ‘Jonathan’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Analysis of these populations showed that the number of apples per replicate and replicates per treatment can be more efficiently reduced by selecting uniform populations than by attempting to further reduce errors associated with the operator or equipment. Four pressure tests per apple resulted in the optimal reduction in the estimated variance of the replicate mean; a sensitive factor in determining the values of design parameters. Estimated variances decreased with storage time. Therefore, experimental designs constructed on the basis of analyzed preliminary pressure tests will be adequate for the duration of storage experiments in which the variability of the population is not increased by the treatments.
A 10-minute soak in 1.0 mm vitamin K5 reduced ethylene production over 90%, while doubling carbon dioxide production by cortical tissue from pre-climacteric apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Reduced ethylene production persisted for at least 4 hours, while carbon dioxide production declined to rates not significantly different from the controls. Vitamin K5 also reduced ethylene production by 50% from quartered fruit of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) at different stages of maturity, and from cortex tissue from apples at or near their climacteric peak of ethylene production.
Mature green bell pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Yolo Wonder) exhibited a non-climacteric pattern of ethylene and carbon dioxide production during normal ripening and red color development at 24°C. Exposing detached mature green fruit to 500 ppm propylene in air for 48 hours, did not induce an increase in ethylene or carbon dioxide production. Wounding excised plugs of ovary wall tissue caused an increase in carbon dioxide production within one day, and an increase in ethylene production by the second day.
Tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. Castelmart) were harvested at various degrees of ripeness and exposed to ethanol vapor at 0, 2, or 4, ml·kg-1 in a 20-liter jar for 0, 2, 4, or 6 hours at 20C. Ripening was measured as changes in subjective color and in firmness and production of CO2 and ethylene. The soluble solids concentration (percent), titratable acidity (percent), and pH were measured at the end of the storage period when the fruit were red-ripe. Ethanol's inhibition of ripening was not confined to mature-green fruit, but also inhibited reddening of breaker, turning, and pink fruits. Storage of mature-green fruit at 20, 15, or 12C after treatment with 0 or 2 ml ethanol/kg at 20C prolonged the delay in ripening for 5, 6, and 7 days, respectively, compared with controls. There was no reduction in the quality of these fruit when they were red-ripe, even though there was an 11-day difference between the time the 20C control and the 12C-treated fruit became red-ripe. An informal panel did not detect any differences in flavor between these control and ethanol-treated fruit that were red-ripe. Increasing the duration of exposure to ethanol vapors from 2 to 6 hours had a pronounced effect on ethylene and CO2 production, but it did not significantly prolong the inhibition of ripening of mature-green fruit nor did it change their rate of softening during ripening. Increasing the temperature during exposure increased the effectiveness of ethanol, with the same level of inhibition produced by 6 hours at 20C, 4 hours at 25C, or 2 hours at 30C. Postharvest use of ethanol vapor to retard ripening may be a useful technique to extend the market life of tomato fruit.
External color, length, diameter, fresh weight, C02 production, internal C2HA concentration, flesh firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), flesh color, and seed cavity diameter were measured during fruit growth and maturation of seven melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L., Inodorus Group, Naud. cv. `Amarelo', `Golden Beauty Casaba', `Honey Dew', `Honey Loupe', `Juan Canary', `Paceco', and `Santa Claus Casaba') of known age. There was no increase in C02 production either during ripening (e.g., loss of firmness and increased SSC) or with increasing C2H4 levels in fruit from any of the seven cultivars. There was a significant decline in respiration only at the second sampling date, which ranged from 14 to 18 days after anthesis. Respiration measured 1 week later was substantially higher and was followed by a general decline. This post 14- to 18-day rise in respiration was not a climacteric since it occurred well in advance of other ripening characteristics, e.g., loss of firmness, increase in SSC, or rise in internal C2H4. The increase in internal C2H4. coincided with or followed attainment of full fruit size, while flesh softening and the rapid rise in SSC preceded the rise in internal C2H4, concentration. Respiration declined from 67 to 18 ml CO2/kg per hour by day 43 in all cultivars, except `Honey Dew' and `Honey Loupe'. Respiration in `Honey Loupe' remained above 23 ml CO2/kg per hour and showed a rise to 32 ml/kg per hour on day 53. Respiration in `Honey Dew' did not fall below 18 ml CO2/kg per hour until day 53. As with internal C2H4 levels, there was no correlation between changes in and any marked change in the other signs of ripening that were measured.
Symptoms of chilling injury were reduced by intermittently warming cucumber fruit (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Poinsett 76) from 2.5 to 12.5C for 18 hr every 3 days. Fruit continuously held at 2.5C for 13 days developed severe pitting and decay after 6 days at 20C, while fruit continuously held at 12.5C or intermittently warmed showed no pitting or decay during subsequent holding at 20C. The increased rate of C2H4 production during the first warming period, from 12 nl·(kg·hr)-1 at 2.5C to 201 nl·(kg·hr)-1 at 12.5C, was significantly greater than that during the second or third warming periods, i.e., 53 to 98 and 53 to 55 nl C2H4/(kg·hr), respectively. Respiration increased 3-fold during the initial warming period, but only 2-fold during subsequent warming periods. Leakage of cellular ions from excised disks of mesocarp tissue was around 6% and 10% of the total ion content of the tissue for control and intermittently warmed fruit, respectively, but increased to 17% for fruit that were continuously held at 2.5C for 10 days. After 320 hr (three cycles) of chilling and warming, chilled fruit showed significantIy lower ethylene-forming enzyme activity than the control or intermittently warmed fruit. Fruit held at 12.5C contained 0.09 to 0.34 nmol·g-1 of ACC. ACC levels were 6.23 nmol·g-1 in fruit exposed to 2.5C for 320 hr. In contrast, intermittently warmed fruit only showed 30% and 27% increases in ACC content during the first and second warming periods, respectively. Periodic warming appears to allow chilled fruit to acclimate to subsequent periods of chilling. Chemical names used: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC).
Leaf midrib tissue from six cultivars of iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was excised from 20- to 100-day-old plants and tested at 5C for russet spotting (RS) susceptibility under 10 μl ethylene/liter. There was no RS development in tissue excised from 20-day-old plants from any of the six cultivars. RS first developed in tissue from 50-day-old plants and tended to be more severe in tissue excised from older plants. ‘Winter Haven’ and ‘Salinas’ were most susceptible, while ‘Calmar’ was most resistant to RS; ‘Climax’, ‘El Toro’, and ‘Sea Green’ were moderately susceptible. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in the six cultivars at different developmental stages correlated with their degree of RS development. For ‘Winter Haven’, the increase in ionically bound POD and IAA oxidase activity, but not PPO activity, was associated with the increase in RS score during plant development. ‘Winter Haven’ tissue had much higher ionically bound peroxidase and IAA oxidase activities than ‘Calmar’ tissue from 100-day-old plants. Chemical names used: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO).
A 1.5% O2 atmosphere, relative to normal air, dramatically inhibited ethylene-induced russet spot development, PAL, and ionically bound POD, and ionicaliy bound IAA oxidase activities and reduced soluble phenolic content in stored iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Low O2 also inhibited eythylene production and respiration. Polyphenol oxidase activity was slightly inhibited by low O2. The results suggest that low O2 inhibition of ethylene action and attendant effects on phenolic metabolism and IAA oxidase activity may be responsible for inhibition of russet spotting by 1.5% O2. Chemical names used: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL); peroxidase (POD); polyphenol oxidase (PPO).
In the article “Ripening of Mature-green Tomato Fruit Slices”, by Fabio Mencarelli and Mikal E. Saltveit, Jr. [J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 113(5):742−745, September 1988], Table 4 is called out in the next-to-last paragraph. There is no Table 4 in this article.