Field research was conducted at a container nursery to investigate fungicide movement in runoff water. Fungicides were applied as either a preventative treatment to all container plants, or as a component of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in which fungicides were only applied to plants showing signs of pathogen infestation. Thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were applied in July and August 1998, and metalaxyl was applied in September 1998. Runoff water was sampled on the day after application (first irrigation after pesticide application) through three pulse irrigation cycles. Total amounts of thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil in runoff water were 7% and 4%, respectively, of applied amount in July. In August, 2% and 4% of thiophanate-methyl and chlorothalonil were found from the preventative treatment. Of the applied metalaxyl, 25% was detected in runoff water for the first irrigation event after application from the preventative treatment. Metalaxyl is a highly water soluble pesticide and nontarget losses from the granular application contributed to the large amounts detected. Total amounts of thiophanate-methyl, chlorothalonil and metalaxyl detected in runoff from the IPM treatment were 25% of amounts from the preventative treatment. No treatment differences were found in container plant salability or in the number of culls at the end of the study.
Canna ×generalis L.H. Bail. (canna), Pontaderia cordata L. (pickerel weed), and Iris L. × `Charjoys Jan' (`Charjoys Jan' iris) were exposed to a 5 mg·L-1 suspension of isoxaben or oryzalin or a water control for 9 days. Growth and photosynthetic responses were monitored throughout treatment and for an additional 22 d after termination of treatment. By the end of the experiment plant height of pickerel weed was reduced by oryzalin. Isoxaben resulted in lower height and reduced leaf emergence for all three taxa by the end of the experiment. Leaf CO2 assimilation (A) and transpiration (E) were lower for oryzalin-treated canna only 17 and 18 days after treatment, several days after treatment had been terminated. Leaf A and E were lower for oryzalin-treated pickerel weed and `Charjoys Jan' iris for most days after day 17. Isoxaben reduced A and E of all three plants for all days measured except day 6 for `Charjoys Jan' iris. Lower photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm) was found for isoxaben-treated canna from day 5 onward and days 7, 20, and 23 for pickerel weed and `Charjoys Jan' iris. Rapid reduction in A and Fv/Fm for all plants treated with isoxaben indicates a direct effect of isoxaben on photosynthesis. Reductions in growth and photosynthetic parameters due to oryzalin were minimal for all plants indicating these plants would be useful in phytoremediation systems where oryzalin is present. However, growth and photosynthetic parameters were reduced substantially for all plants exposed to isoxaben indicating the taxa studied would not perform well in phytoremediation systems with this level of isoxaben exposure. Chemical names used: isoxaben (N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyly]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide); oryzalin (4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulforamide).