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  • Author or Editor: Martine Dorais x
  • HortTechnology x
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The objectives of this study were to evaluate the risks and benefits of using artificial wetland-treated waters to irrigate tomato plants (Lycopersicom esculentum) and the potential for suppression of Pythium ultimum. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using tap water (control) and treated waters coming from three types of horizontal subsurface flow artificial wetlands filled with pozzolana and implanted with common cattail (Typha latifolia). Wetland units contained either a simple [artificial wetland with sucrose (AWS)] or complex [artificial wetland with compost (AWC)] carbon source or no [artificial wetland with no carbon (AW)] additional carbon source. A complete randomized split-block design comparing root sensitivity to root rot (inoculated and uninoculated plants) in main plots and four nutrient solutions [1) control, 2) treated water from AWS, 3) treated water from AWC, and 4) treated water from AW] in subplots was used in six replications. Tomato plants were inoculated with P. ultimum twice during the experimental period. The use of treated waters reduced the in vivo root Pythium population by 84% and 100% when the treated waters were from AWS and AWC, respectively. In vitro trials showed that sterilization or membrane filtration (0.2 μm) of treated waters significantly reduced the potential for suppression of P. ultimum, suggesting that microbial activity played an important role. On the other hand, all AW-treated waters had a negative effect on root development of uninoculated young tomato plants. Root dry weights of plants irrigated with treated waters was 56% lower than in control plants, while their shoot:root ratio was two times higher for plants irrigated with treated waters. The inoculated and AWC-treated water treatments also reduced the Fv:Fm ratio of dark-adapted leaves, representing the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II. Organic compounds present in treated waters, expressed as total and dissolved organic compounds, may have affected tomato root development.

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Climate control is an important aspect of greenhouse crop management. Shading is one popular method for reducing excess solar heat radiation and high air temperatures in the greenhouse during the summer season. A new innovative technology has recently been developed and is based on the injection of liquid foam between the double layers of polyethylene of the greenhouse roof. The foam can be used as a shading method during the warm days of the summer. This is the first investigation into the effect of shading using the liquid foam technology on greenhouse and plant microclimates. Our research was conducted over 2 years in two different areas of Canada. Experimental greenhouses were retrofitted with the new technology. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) were transplanted. Two shading strategies were used: 1) comparison of a conventional nonmovable shading curtain to the liquid foam shading system and application of liquid foam shading based only on outside global solar radiation; and 2) application of foam shading based on both outside global solar radiation and greenhouse air temperature. Data on the greenhouse microclimate (global solar radiation, air temperature, and relative humidity), the canopy microclimate (leaf and bottom fruit temperatures), and ventilation (opening/closing) were recorded. Our study showed that the retractable liquid foam technology improved greenhouse climate. Under some conditions (very sunny and hot days), a large difference in air temperature (up to 6 °C) was noted between the unshaded and shaded greenhouses as a result of liquid foam application (40% to 65% shading). Foam shading also increased relative humidity by 5% to 12%. Furthermore, bottom fruit temperatures stayed cooler 3 h after shading treatment was stopped. As well, a reduction in ventilation needs was observed with liquid foam shading.

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