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  • Author or Editor: M.L. Smith x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Four-year-old `Redblush' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) trees on either the relatively fast-growing rootstock `Volkamer' lemon (VL) (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.) or on the slower-growing rootstock sour orange (SO) (C. aurantium L.) were transplanted into 7.9-m3 drainage lysimeter tanks filled with native Candler sand, irrigated similarly, and fertilized at three N rates during 2.5 years. After 6 months, effects of N application rate and rootstock on tree growth, evapotranspiration, fruit yield, N uptake, and leaching were measured during the following 2 years. When trees were 5 years old, low, medium, and high N application rates averaged about 79,180, or 543 g N/tree per year and about 126,455, or 868 g N/tree during the following year. Recommended rates average about 558 g N/tree per year. A lysimeter tank with no tree and additional trees growing outside lysimeters received the medium N treatment. Nitrogen concentration in the drainage water increased with N rate and exceeded 10 mg·liter-1 for trees receiving the high rates and also for the no tree tank. Leachate N concentration and total N recovered was greater from trees on SO than from those on VL. Average N uptake efficiency of medium N rate trees on VL was 6870 of the applied N and 61 % for trees on SO. Nitrogen uptake efficiency decreased with increased N application rates. Trees outside lysimeters had lower leaf N and fruit yield than lysimeter trees. Overall, canopy volume and leaf N concentration increased with N rate, but there was no effect of N rate on fibrous root dry weight. Fruit yield of trees on SO was not affected by N rate but higher N resulted in greater yield for trees on VL. Rootstock had no effect on leaf N concentration, but trees on VI. developed larger canopies, had greater fibrous root dry weight, used more water, and yielded more fruit than trees on SO. Based on growth, fruit yield and N leaching losses, currently recommended N rates were appropriate for trees on the more vigorous VL rootstock but were 22% to 69 % too high for trees on SO.

Free access

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate seasonal changes in the free proline content of citrus roots, leaves, fruit peel, and juice in response to low-temperature and water stress. Nonirrigated trees generally had higher proline in all tissues than did irrigated trees except immediately after a freeze. At this time, nonirrigated trees were less water-stressed because of the greater amount of freeze-induced defoliation that nonirrigated trees had sustained. Using data from an entire year, proline concentration was not correlated with water stress of leaves or fruit. This lack of correlation probably was due to the interacting effects of water stress and low temperature on proline accumulation. Leaves accumulated proline in response to stress before roots and fruit. These data support the idea that the free proline increases first in the leaves in response to stress and subsequently is transported to other tree tissues. Even though proline content in the juice increased with fruit maturity, proline may not be a good indicator of juice quality since it did not always correspond with Brix:acid ratio and fruit in the most exposed canopy positions tended to have the highest proline content.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Duncan’ grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) and ‘Pineapple’ sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) seedlings were grown in full sunlight, 50% and 90% shade; maximum photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of 2300, 1100 and 200 μmol s−1m−2, respectively. In fully expanded matured (hardened) leaves, leaf thickness, specific leaf weight (SLW), tissue density, and nitrogen content were highest in full sun leaves and lowest in 90% shade leaves. Leaf chlorophyll content was highest in 90% shade leaves. Half of the seedlings which were grown in full sunlight were transferred into 50% shade to simulate normal canopy development; half of the seedlings from 50% and 90% shade were moved into full sunlight to simulate changes that occur after hedging. Specific leaf weight and tissue density changed in the same direction as PPFD. Leaf nitrogen content decreased temporarily when leaves were exposed to new PPFD conditions regardless of the PPFD levels. Total leaf chlorophyll content initially decreased when seedlings were transferred into full sunlight but began to increase after 4–6 weeks. Chlorophyll content increased in seedlings transferred from full sun to 50% shade. Percentage of air space within leaf tissues did not change during acclimation to new PPFD levels. Changes in leaf anatomy, physical characteristics, and chemical components are mechanisms that enable citrus leaves to acclimate to a wide range of changing light environments, even after leaves are fully mature.

Open Access

Abstract

Roots of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] and beet (Beta vulgaris L.) peeled with superheated steam, had higher peel and trim yields than did those peeled with saturated steam at the same pressure. Product recovery was greater with all steam-peeling methods than with caustic peeling. Direct injection of cold water into the partially pressurized steam atmosphere of the peeler also increased product recovery. Better color retention in processed beets was obtained from steam-peeled roots than from caustic-peeled roots.

Open Access

Five- to six-year-old `Redblush' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) trees on `Volkamer' lemon [VL = C. volkameriana (Ten. & Pasq.)] or sour orange (SO = C. aurantium L.) rootstock, were grown individually in 7.9-m3 lysimeters for 2.5 years using low to high rates of fertilizer N. Net CO2 assimilation (ACO2) of leaves and leaf dry mass per area (DM/a) increased with leaf N concentration, whereas leaf tissue C isotope discrimination (Δ) decreased. Leaf tissue Δ was negatively related to ACO2 and DM/a. Transient effects of rootstock on leaf N were reflected by similar effects on Δ. There was no effect of leaf N on water-use efficiency (WUE) of leaves (WUEL = ACO2/transpiration); WUEL was not correlated with Δ. Although photosynthetic N use efficiency (ACO2/N) consistently decreased with increased leaf N, Δ was not consistently related to ACO2/N. Annual canopy growth, tree evapotranspiration (ET), and fruit yield increased with whole tree N uptake. Leaf tissue Δ was negatively related to all of these tree measurements at the end of the second year. By that time, whole-tree WUE (WUET, annual canopy growth per ET) also was negatively related to Δ. Larger trees on VL had higher ET than trees on SO, but there were no rootstock effects on WUET or on Δ. Leaf tissue Δ was consistently higher than Δ values of trunk and woody root tissues. Citrus leaf tissue Δ can be a useful indicator of leaf N, characteristics of leaf gas exchange, tree growth, yield, and WUET in response to N availability.

Free access