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  • Author or Editor: M.J. Silbernagel x
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Abstract

The ARS/USDA and the Agricultural Experiment Station of Washington State Univ. announce the release of germplasm line, FR (Fusarium Resistant)-266, a bush snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) line, which is resistant to Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel & Wr. f. sp phaseoli Burkh. Snyd. & Hans. FR-266 also is resistant to bean common mosaic virus (dominant I gene)(l), curly top virus, and is tolerant to white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorurn (Lib.) deBary. FR-266 is the only known green-podded, white-seeded, bush snap bean line that has this unique combination of multiple disease resistance factors.

Open Access

Abstract

ARS/USDA and the Agricultural Experiment Station of Washington State Univ. announce the germplasm release of an Italian-style, flat-podded snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) line, VR (Virus Resistant)-Ro-mano, VR-Romano is unique in this class of snap beans because it is resistant to curly top virus and carries the dominant I gene resistance to bean common mosaic virus (1).

Open Access

Abstract

‘Blue Mountain’ snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a bush Blue Lake-type developed for commercial processing, home-garden, and market-garden use. It is resistant to Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV), I gene, and Curly Top Virus (CTV), definite advantages in the seed production regions of the intermountain western states. ‘Blue Mountain’ is adapted to mechanical harvesting, and does well in either standard row widths or in high-density culture. Unlike many Blue Lake-types, ‘Blue Mountain’ picks clean (minimal leaves, stems, etc.) when mechanically harvested and its through-the-plant flow is comparable to ‘Tendercrop’. ‘Blue Mountain’ does well in the warmer dry climates found in the arid western states and in the mid-western and northeastern production areas. ‘Blue Mountain’ is not well-suited for production in the cool-cloudy Willamette Valley, where most of Oregon’s Blue Lake beans are grown. Plant and pod appearance resemble ‘Tendercrop’, but the processed pods have flavor, color, and quality that are comparable to ‘Blue Lake’. As a processing bean, ‘Blue Mountain’ is suitable for canning and freezing, cut or french-style pack. Its appearance and flavor will appeal to home and market gardeners.

Open Access

Blackleaf (a.k.a. chocolate leaf) is of worldwide concern in Vitis due to its negative impact on fruit ripening, yield reduction and overall stress on grapevines. Research suggests blackleaf is induced by high levels of UV radiation and overall light intensity, which induce color changes (purple-brown-black) in exposed leaves, resulting in >50% reduction in photosynthesis. The ability to detect blackleaf symptoms before expression can provide insight into metabolic stresses and the possibility of the use and/or timing of management practices to reduce its impact. Remotely sensed imagery and spatial analysis may elucidate reflectance-related processes and symptoms not apparent to the un-aided eye. In this research we mapped canopy growth (leaves/shoot and shoots/vine), metabolic triggers (photosynthesis, leaf water potential, soil moisture), and percent blackleaf expression within vineyards using global positioning system (GPS), infrared gas analyzer, and digital remotely-sensed images. Each image and data record was stored as an attribute associated with specific vine location within a geographical information system (GIS). Spatial maps were created from the GIS coverages to graphically present the progression of blackleaf across vineyards throughout the season. Analysis included summary statistics such as minimum, maximum, and variation of green reflectance, within a vineyard by image capture date. Additionally, geostatistics were used to model the degree of similarity between blackleaf values as a function of their spatial location. Continuing research will be aimed at identifying spectral characteristics of early season stresses due to UV light, water stress, and reduced photosynthetic capacity. Spatial relationships between early season stress and later blackleaf expression will be assessed using joint spatial dependence measures. Overall, information obtained through digital image and spatial analysis will supplement site level information for growers.

Free access

Abstract

Two bean cultivars and one breeding selection with different pod-retention characteristics were grown at mean soil moisture tension (MSMT) of 0.05 and 0.1 MPa in 2 separate plantings. In the 5 May planting, flower buds developed during the 1st 3½ weeks of flowering, were dated and counted, and those developing mature pods were identified. Sixty-five percent to 90% of all pods that reached full maturity were from floral buds that reached anthesis during the 1st 2 weeks of flowering. The percentage of pods reaching maturity varied among cultivars. About 40% of the floral buds that developed on the determinate bean selection were retained to full pod maturity. Only 20% to 25% of the floral buds developed on each of the indeterminate cultivars were retained to full pod maturity. An increase in the MSMT from 0.05 to 0.1 MPa in the 23 June planting reduced the number of pods and seeds/plant and total seed weight/plant by 20% to 40%, but the number of seeds/pod and weight/seed was not influenced by MSMT or by number of pods produced on either of the dry bean cultivars or the breeding selection.

Open Access

Abstract

Chemicals often associated with pollen function in vitro were applied under field conditions to foliage of determinate, semi-determinate, and indeterminate beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to evaluate pod and seed yield response. Sprays of calcium nitrate, boric acid, ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid, detergent “Micro”, and different sugars altered pod retention and seed yield, but response varied with bean source.

Open Access