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  • Author or Editor: M. T. McClelland x
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Effects of three variables (vessel type, closure, and explant orientation) on microcutting quality were investigated using five woody species [low shadblow, Amefanchier spicata (Lam.) C. Koch (Syn. A. humilus Wieg.); red maple, Acer rubrun L. `Red Sunset'; border forsythia, Forsythia ×intermedia Zab. `Sunrise'; apple, Malus ×domestica Borkh. `McIntosh'; river birch, Betula nigra L.]. Uniform shoot explants were oriented vertically or horizontally in three vessel types (60-ml glass culture tubes, 200-ml glass baby food jars, and 350-ml polypropylene GA7 vessels) with and without a Parafilm seal. Visual density per explant obtained by image analysis was increased in larger vessel types, and significantly more shoots were produced from horizontally placed explants. Closure treatments influenced microshoot quality, but trends were species specific. Overall, horizontal explant orientation in larger vessels wthout parafilm maximized shoot response for most of the species studied. In vitro rooting of microcuttings was significantly enhanced in larger vessels.

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Determining the cost of producing individual plants is one of the most essential, yet difficult, responsibilities of a nursery manager (Dinter, 1988; Taylor et al., 1986). An abundance of interacting and unpredictable variables exert enormous influence on the cost of production. Despite the complexity of the task, controlling production through accurate cost accounting is imperative to establish long-range business plans, evaluate and compare alternative production methods, and ultimately increase profits (Anderson and Raiborn, 1977; Davidson and Mecklenburg, 1981; Furuta, 1978; Pappas and Brigham, 1979).

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