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  • Author or Editor: Leslie H. Fuchigami x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Seedling plugs of `Better Boy' tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were potted in 60% processed fiber: 40% perlite (by volume) media amended or nonamended with either crystalline or powdered hydrophilic polymer (2.4 kg·m-3), and treated with one of several concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%) of antitranspirant GLK-8924, at the four true-leaf stage. Plants were either well-irrigated or subjected to short-term water stress, withholding water for 3 days, after antitranspirant GLK-8924 application. Leaf stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, whole-plant transpirational water loss, and growth were depressed by short-term water stress and antitranspirant GLK-8924. In contrast, hydrophilic polymer amendment increased plant growth, resulting in higher transpirational water loss. The depression of stomatal conductance and transpiration rate by short-term water stress was reversed completely in 2 days after rewatering while the reduction of plant growth rate diminished immediately. The effects of antitranspirant GLK-8924 were nearly proportional to its concentration and lasted 8 days on stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, 4 days on plant growth rate, and throughout the experimental period on plant height and transpirational water loss. Plant growth was reduced by antitranspirant GLK-8924 possibly by closing leaf stomata. In contrast, hydrophilic polymer amendment resulted in larger plants by factors other than influences attributed to stomatal status. Hydrophilic polymer amendment did not interact with antitranspirant GLK-8924 on all variables measured. The application of antitranspirant GLK-8924 was demonstrated to be useful for regulating plant water status, plant growth, and protecting plants from short-term water stress.

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Three experiments were conducted at two locations, two at Summerland, British Columbia, Canada and one at Corvallis, Ore., to evaluate synthetic auxins (MCPB-ethyl or NAA) and ethephon as blossom thinners for `Fuji' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. These experiments also involved application of carbaryl at 1000 mg·L-1 in the postbloom period. All blossom thinners were sprayed at 85% full bloom while carbaryl was applied at 11-mm fruit diameter. Within these experiments, MCPB-ethyl at up to 20 mg·L-1 or NAA at up to 21 mg·L-1 increased whole flower cluster removal linearly with rate; however, with the Corvallis experiment MCPB-ethyl failed to result in any thinning. Neither auxin treatment consistently reduced fruit set on the remaining clusters, resulting in “clustering”. Bloom-time application of ethephon at 100 mg·L-1 with NAA further reduced crop load. Carbaryl reduced total crop load by increasing both whole cluster removal and number of sites with a single fruit. Return flowering was not improved by the auxin treatments except where there was very excessive crop reduction. Ethephon or carbaryl promoted return flowering with the carbaryl effect being more pronounced. However, this carbaryl effect was significantly countered by the bloom-time auxin whereas ethephon overcame the negative effects of the auxin treatments. The combined use of ethephon and carbaryl was effective in terms of both crop reduction and return flowering benefits. Chemical names used: 1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl); 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon); ethyl 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) butanoate (MCPB-ethyl); and 2-(1-naphthyl) acetic acid (NAA).

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The effects of water stress and GA, on breaking dormancy of flower buds of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) were investigated. In the first experiment, water was withheld until the trees reached leaf water potentials (WP) of -1.20, - 1.75, -2.65, or -3.50 MPa. Water potential, ethylene production, and ion leakage of flower buds and leaf disks were examined from release from water stress until anthesis. Trees that had experienced leaf WP of less than - 2.65 MPa, and flower bud WP of about - 4.0 MPa flowered within 9 days after irrigation. In flower buds where dormancy had been broken with water stress, ethylene production was low compared to dormant buds and flowers at anthesis. In the second experiment, O, 50, 100, or 200 mg GA3/liter was painted on branches of nonstressed trees. In experiment three, water was withheld until plants reached leaf WP of -0.6, -1.3, - 2.1, or - 3.0 MPa, then two branches per tree were painted with O, 50, and 100 mg GA3/liter. Gibberellic acid partially compensated for insufficient water stress to initiate flower opening. Ethylene evolution of flower buds was affected by water stress but not by GA3 treatment. Severe water stress treatments and GA, treatment (200 mg·liter-1) increased ethylene evolution of leaf disks. Ion leakage of flower buds and leaf disks was increased by severe water stress. Ion leakage of flower buds was highest at anthesis. After water stress, dormant and nondormant flower buds at the 4-mm stage could be distinguished based on their ethylene evolution. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).

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Bench-grafted `Fuji' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees on Malling 26 (M.26) rootstocks were fertigated for 6 weeks with N concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 mm. These treatments produced levels of leaf N ranging from 0.9 to 4.3 g·m-2. Over this range, leaf absorptance increased curvilinearly from 74.8% to 92.5%. The light saturation point for CO2 assimilation expressed on the basis of absorbed light increased linearly at first with increasing leaf N, then reached a plateau at a leaf N content of ≈3 g·m-2. Under high light conditions (photosynthetic photon flux of 1500 μmol·m-2·s-1), the amount of absorbed light in excess of that required to saturate CO2 assimilation decreased with increasing leaf N. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements revealed that the maximum photosystem II (PSII) efficiency of dark-adapted leaves was relatively constant over the leaf N range, except for a slight decrease at the lower end. As leaf N increased, nonphotochemical quenching declined under high light, and there was an increase in the efficiency with which the absorbed photons were delivered to open PSII centers. The photochemical quenching coefficient remained high except for a decrease at the lower end of the leaf N range. Actual PSII efficiency increased curvilinearly with increasing leaf N, and was highly correlated with light-saturated CO2 assimilation. The fraction of absorbed light potentially going into singlet oxygen formation was estimated to be ≈10%, regardless of leaf N status. It was concluded that there was more excess absorbed light in low N leaves than in high N leaves under high light conditions. Nonphotochemical quenching was enhanced with decreasing leaf N to reduce both the PSII efficiency and the probability of damage from photooxidation by excess absorbed light.

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Abstract

Temperature requirements for rest development were determined and used in developing an empirical model for predicting rest development in terminal vegetative buds of Cornus sericea L. Vegetatively mature plants were exposed to 5° to 20°C under a 12-hr photoperiod (SD) in growth chambers, and depth of rest was measured by days to terminal bud break at 20°/15° (day/night) under a 16-hour photoperiod (LD). Rest development proceeded only after vegetative maturity was attained. Time from vegetative maturity to maximum rest decreased with decreasing temperature. Rate of rest development at all temperatures varied and was dependent on growth stage. The annual growth cycle and rest development were described and quantified by a degree growth stage (°GS) model. Using temperature and accumulating °GS, the model predicted maximum rest within 2 days in both years.

Open Access

Abstract

Effects of temperature on cold acclimation and deacclimation of red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L. syn. Cornus stolonifera Michx.) plants were determined at different stages of plant development. Results were used to develop models for predicting stem hardiness. Acclimation and deacclimation rates were related to temperature and plant developmental stage (expressed as degree growth stage, °GS). Decreasing temperature promoted increasing acclimation. Maximum acclimation rates in the temperature range of 5° to 20°C occurred at maximum rest (270°GS). During the decreasing rest phase (270 to 315°GS), deacclimation occurred at temperatures from 7° to 20°C. At earlier stages of development (315° and 335°GS) during the quiescent phase (315 to 360°GS), 5°C was the only temperature that promoted hardiness, whereas at a later stage (341°GS) all temperatures tested caused deacclimation. The models, using bihourly temperatures and accumulating °GS, predicted hardiness within an average deviation of 4.7°C.

Open Access

Desiccation stress during the postharvest handling of bare-root deciduous trees can account for dieback and poor regrowth after transplanting. Desiccation tolerance of three bare-root deciduous hardwood species was determined at monthly harvest intervals from Sept. 1990 through Apr. 1991. Among the three species tested red oak (Quercus rubra L.) was most tolerant to desiccation, followed by Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) and Washington hawthorn (Crataegus phaenopyrum Medic.). Maximum desiccation tolerance of all three species occurred during the January and February harvests. Of 20 film-forming compounds tested, the antidesiccant Moisturin was the most effective in reducing water loss from bare-root trees during desiccation stress and in improving survival and plant performance during re-establishment in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Moisturin-treated plants lost up to 80% less water than untreated plants. Washington hawthorn seedlings treated with Moisturin before severe desiccating conditions had the highest survival, lowest dieback/plant, and highest root growth ratings. The results indicate that Moisturin is an effective means of overcoming postharvest desiccation stress in desiccation sensitive plants, such as Washington hawthorn.

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