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  • Author or Editor: Lambert McCarty x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Greenhouse studies were conducted at the Univ. of Florida to evaluate the effects of preemergence herbicides on St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] rooting. Metolachlor, atrazine, metolachlor + atrazine, isoxahen, pendimethalin, dithiopyr, and oxadiazon were applied to soil columns followed by placement of St. Augustinegrass sod on the treated soil. Root elongation and biomass were measured following application. Plants treated with dithiopyr and pendimethalin had no measurable root elongation and root biomass was severely (>70%) reduced at the study's conclusion (33 days). Root biomass was unaffected following isoxaben and oxadiazon treatments, but oxadiazon applied at 3.4 kg·ha-1 reduced root length by 50%. Atrazine at 2.2 kg·ha-1 and metolachlor + atrazine at 2.2 + 2.2 kg·ha-1, did not reduce root length in one study, while the remaining atrazine and metolachlor + atrazine treatments reduced cumulative root length and total root biomass 20% to 60%. Metolachlor at 2.2 kg·ha-1 reduced St. Augustinegrass root biomass by >70% in one of two studies. St. Augustinegrass root elongation rate was linear or quadratic in response to all treatments. However, the rate of root elongation was similar to the untreated control for plants treated with isoxaben or oxadiazon. Chemical names used: 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(l-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine(atrazine);S,S-dimethyl2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(t∼fluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridinecarbothioate (dithiopyr); N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide (isoxaben); 2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl- 6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).

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Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of foliar-applied 14C-labeled sethoxydim (14C-sethoxydim) in sethoxydim-tolerant centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] and sethoxydim-sensitive goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] were determined. The distribution of 14C in treated leaves indicated that similar amounts (≈ 3%) were found in the epicuticular wax fraction (chloroform wash) of both species after 6 hours. After 2 hours, 16% of the applied 14C-sethoxydim was absorbed in the treated leaf by centipedegrass, but only 2% was absorbed by goosegrass. After 2 hours, centipedegrass also readily translocated greater amounts of 14C than goosegrass (4.3% vs. 0.4%). Six hours after treatment, however, no differences were found in amounts absorbed by the treated leaf and translocated to apical and basal leaves. Because sethoxydim-tolerant centipedegrass absorbed and translocated similar amounts of 14C compared to the sethoxydim-sensitive goosegrass, these two mechanisms do not appear to be a means of tolerance. The major difference found between the two species was in the metabolism of sethoxydim. After 6 hours, 81% to 98% of the 14C in goosegrass extracts remained as 14C-sethoxydim. In contrast, only 1% of the 14C found in apical leaves, basal leaves, and roots of centipedegrass was identified as 14C-sethoxydim. These data indicated that differences in tolerance to sethoxydim between these two species were based on metabolism. Chemical name used: 2-[1-(ethoxyimino) butyl]-5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2 -cyclohexen-1-one (sethoxydim).

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