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  • Author or Editor: K.A. Fisher x
  • HortTechnology x
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Reusing irrigation water has technical, environmental, and financial benefits. However, risks are also associated with the accumulation of agrochemicals, in addition to ions, plant and food safety pathogens, and biofilm organisms. In this project, we measured the concentration of paclobutrazol (a persistent and widely used plant growth regulator) in recirculated water in greenhouses producing ornamental plants in containers. Solutions were collected from catchment tanks at nine commercial greenhouses across seven states in the United States in Spring and Fall 2014. Paclobutrazol was detected in all samples, with differences observed by season, greenhouse operation, paclobutrazol application method, and irrigation method. Across operations, the residual concentration of paclobutrazol was higher in spring for most greenhouses (ranging from 0 to 1100 µg·L−1) compared with the fall (ranging from 0 to 8 µg·L−1). The spray-drench application method resulted in the highest residual concentrations (up to 35 µg·L−1), followed by substrate drench (up to 26 µg·L−1) and foliage spray (concentrations under 3 µg·L−1). Residual concentrations were higher with overhead irrigation (up to 35 µg·L−1) compared with subirrigation systems (up to 15 µg·L−1). Our results indicate that paclobutrazol is likely to be a growth retardant risk in greenhouse operations recirculating water. A clear understanding of the risks associated with recirculated water intends to support the development and implementation of risk management strategies to ensure and promote safe use of recirculated water in greenhouses. Overall, the most effective preventative strategy is to ensure the use of the minimum amount of the a.i. necessary per unit of space and time.

Open Access