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  • Author or Editor: Justin R. Morris x
  • HortScience x
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The moderate consumption of red wine, grapes, raisins, and grape juice has a demonstrably positive effect on human health. Scientifically conducted surveys have shown that the effects of moderate intake of red wine reduces circulatory disease. Legislative efforts on labeling red wine to show the scientific evidence of this statement are receiving favorable attention. The antioxidant resveratrol, present in the skins of the grape in any of its various forms, is believed to be the agent primarily responsible for the healthful benefits demonstrated. It has been shown to affect lipid metabolism in higher mammals. Studies of resveratrol content in a variety of wine grapes are being performed at the Univ. of Arkansas, as well as at other institutions. Red wine (in contrast to white wine and other alcoholic beverages) reduces clotting ability and increases levels of high-density lipoproteins (“good” cholesterol), which diminishes the risk of coronary problems. Grape skin extract, red wines, and red juice appear to enhance the ability of blood vessels to resist vasoconstriction and to contribute to antithrombotic activity. In laboratory tests, several known antioxidants in wine out-performed vitamin E, the current best-known dietary antioxidant.

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Abstract

The mechanization revolution in the cane fruit industry has been a result of the increasing scarcity and expense of hand labor which has threatened to eliminate cane fruits as a processing crop in the United States.

Open Access

Abstract

Mechanization of the blackberry industry has been necessary due to the increasing scarcity and expense of hand-labor which threatened to eliminate blackberries as a processing crop. The Univ. of Arkansas has been a leader in this mechanization effort with the development of a tractor-drawn prototype harvester in 1964 (3, 9). The self-propelled, hydraulically driven commercial model was developed subsequently and is now a prominent harvester in the major production areas of the United States (4). A mechanical pruner for erect blackberries also was developed at the Univ. of Arkansas. This mechanization of harvesting and pruning has allowed, indeed required, the development of an efficient new integrated production system for blackberries (7, 8, 9).

Open Access

Abstract

There has been a revolution in recent years in the area of small fruit and grape harvesting. Hand labor has become both scarce and costly, thus invention and development of mechanical harvesters have become important research objectives for research scientists in Land-Grant Institutions, in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and in private industry.

Open Access

Abstract

Grapevines are not free standing and therefore must be provided with a support system to produce an economically commercial crop. Grapes traditionally have been trained and modified to provide a support system for production, but these systems have not necessarily been well-suited to mechanization. Currently, there is a major research effort throughout the world to modify grapevines so that viticultural practices can be economically mechanized while maintaining or improving yield and quality.

Open Access

The impending release of a new blackberry cultivar and a new grape cultivar by the University of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment station will be discussed. The blackberry, tested as A-1536, is an erect, thornless type ripening two weeks before 'Navaho'. It produces very firm, highly flavored fruit similar to 'Navaho'. The grape, tested as A-1335, is a blue-seeded juice grape with good adaptation to areas with high summer temperatures where 'Concord' does not ripen evenly. Fresh fruit and processed juice quality has been rated equal to or better than 'Concord' juice for quality attributes.

Free access

Abstract

‘Saturn’ is the fourth in a series of seedless table grapes released from the grape breeding program of the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Previous releases were ‘Venus’ in 1977 (Moore and Brown, 1977), ‘Reliance’ in 1983 (Moore, 1983), and ‘Mars’ in 1984 (Moore, 1985). These cultivars are the foundation of an emerging commercial table-grape industry in the region. ‘Saturn’, a high-quality, red seedless grape with good storage and shelf-life characteristics, is expected to contribute to further expansion of the commercial industry.

Open Access