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  • Author or Editor: Junichi Soejima x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Seasonal changes in the amounts of the NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH) (enzyme code, 1.1.1.14) protein in developing apple (Malus pumila Mill var. domestica Schneid) fruit were determined by immunoblotting analysis. The amounts of the enzyme protein were very low in young fruit and rose as fruit matured. The weak correlation between enzyme protein and NAD-SDH activity and also the changes in NAD-SDH specific activity suggested that there could be posttranslational modification to the pre-existing enzyme or isoenzyme(s) of NAD-SDH. The changes in the amounts of NAD-SDH protein did not show the same pattern as those in relative growth rate, which is used to express sink activity, especially in young fruit. The role of NAD-SDH on sink activity in apple fruit, therefore, could not be explained simply by the amount and activity of the enzyme. In young fruit, it seems that enzymes other than NAD-SDH would be more directly related with fruit growth.

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We examined the genetic diversity and relatedness among apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars in Japan. The 42 apple cultivars, including major cultivars in Japan, were divided into five groups based on SSR genotypes. Most economically important cultivars belong in three groups: Fuji-Delicious, Golden Delicious, and Jonathan groups, and their genetic backgrounds seemed to be narrow. We also investigated the parent-offspring relationships of nine apple cultivars. `Jonathan', `Fuji', and `Rero 11' were identified as the respective paternal parents of three cultivars described as having unknown paternal parents (i.e., `Akagi', `Ambitious', and `Hokuto'). `Starking Delicious', `Senshu', and `Golden Delicious', rather than `Ralls Janet', `Hatsuaki', and `Indo', seemed to be the paternal parents of `Kinsei', `Kiou', and `Mellow', respectively. `Carolina Red June' was excluded as a paternal parent of `Ranzan'. Both attributed parents of `Scarlet' (`Akane' and `Starking Delicious') were excluded, and it was suggested that `Fuji' was used as either a maternal or a paternal parent of `Scarlet'. `Jonathan' rather than `McIntosh' seems to be a maternal parent of `Yukari'.

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Two apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] homologous fragments of FLO/LFY and SQUA/AP1 (AFL and MdAP1, respectively) were analyzed to determine the relationship between floral bud formation and floral gene expression in `Jonathan' apple. The AFL gene was expressed in reproductive and vegetative organs. By contrast, the MdAP1 gene, identified as MdMADS5, which is classified into the AP1 group, was expressed specifically in sepals concurrent with sepal formation. Based on these results, AFL may be involved in floral induction to a greater degree than MdAP1 since AFL transcription increased ≈2 months earlier than MdAP1. Characterization of AFL and MdAP1 should advance the understanding of the processes of floral initiation and flower development in woody plants, especially in fruit trees like apple.

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