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  • Author or Editor: Jun-Yao Yu x
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Chrysanthemum ‘Bai Tian Xing’, ‘Huang Ching Chin’, ‘Pink Pearl’, and ‘NCHU-001’ plants were preheated at 35 °C for 24 hours to induce heat tolerance. The recently fully expanded leaves were detached, kept in a moist Ziploc bag, and then subjected to 35, 40, 45, 47.5, 50, 52.5, 55, 60, or 65 °C for 20 minutes. After dark-acclimatized at room temperature for 30 minutes, leaves were measured for Fv/Fm value with a chlorophyll fluorescence parameter. Results showed that ‘Bai Tian Xing’ had the highest critical (Tcrit) and midpoint temperature (Tmid). Mean Tcrit and Tmid were shown to be 47 and 50 °C, respectively, and Tmid gave greater distinguishment of Fv/Fm value among cultivars. Plants of four cultivars were acclimatized at 15 to 40 °C for 3 days and 35 °C being the most effective temperature to induce a heat-tolerant response in chrysanthemum. Required inducing time to reach a stable leaf Fv/Fm value ranged from 4.6 to 11.1 hours among cultivars. All cultivars had similar required time to reach visible bud between summer and autumn crops (except NCHU-001), but all had delayed flowering in the summer crop. There is a negative linear relationship between flowering heat delay and leaf Fv/Fm value (R2 = 0.93). Progenies from reciprocal crossing of ‘Bai Tian Xing’ × ‘NCHU-001’ and ‘Huang Ching Chin’ × ‘Pink Pearl’ were also subjected to treatments for Fv/Fm measurements and observed for time to flowering in the summer crop. All combinations showed negative linear relationship between time to flowering and leaf Fv/Fm value (R2 = 0.70–0.87). Two plants, 109-W001Y and 109-W003Pi, showed early flowering habit and good flower performance under heat conditions were selected. All four cultivars and the two selected lines were measured for photosynthetic parameters under day/night temperatures of 35/30 or 25/20 °C in growth chambers. All cultivars and lines showed decreased net photosynthetic rate and dark respiration rate under 35/30 °C when compared with 25/20 °C. Relatively higher net photosynthetic rate and lower dark respiration rate in ‘Bai Tian Xing’, ‘109-W001Y’, and ‘109-W003Pi’ under 35/30 °C, when compared with the other three cultivars, might have contributed to better flowering performance in the summer.

Open Access

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been proven to be a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we attempted to explore the effects of H2S on the climacteric fruit tomato during postharvest storage. H2S fumigation for 1 d was found to delay the peel color transition from green to red and decreased fruit firmness induced by ethylene. Further investigation showed that H2S fumigation downregulated the activities and gene expressions of cell wall–degrading enzymes pectin lyase (PL), polygalacturonase (PG), and cellulase. Furthermore, H2S fumigation downregulated the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes SlACS2 and SlACS3. Ethylene treatment for 1 d was found to induce the expression of SlACO1, SlACO3, and SlACO4 genes, whereas the increase was significantly inhibited by H2S combined with ethylene. Furthermore, H2S decreased the transcript accumulation of ethylene receptor genes SlETR5 and SlETR6 and ethylene transcription factors SlCRF2 and SlERF2. The correlation analysis suggested that the fruit firmness was negatively correlated with ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway. The current study showed that exogenous H2S could inhibit the synthesis of endogenous ethylene and regulate ethylene signal transduction, thereby delaying fruit softening and the ripening process of tomato fruit during postharvest storage.

Free access