`Floradade' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) transplants treated with foliar sprays of paclobutrazol at 0, 14, 30, 60, or 90 ppm exhibited reductions in stem length, leaf area, and plant dry weight in a cubic response pattern. Gibberellic acid (GA) drenches, at 10, 100, or 250 ppm, increased stem length, leaf area, and plant dry weight. Daminozide (2500 or 5000 ppm) sprays reduced leaf area and dry weight, but 5000 ppm had no effect on stem length. Abscisic acid drenches, at 275, 660, or 1320 ppm, did not affect final plant size. In subsequent experiments to produce transplants for field evaluation, plants treated with paclobutrazol sprays at 90 (1987) and 14 or 60 ppm (1988) had smaller leaf area, stem length, and shoot dry weight than untreated plants. In 1987,90 ppm paclobutrazol reduced stem shear strength, while 2500 ppm daminozide increased stem strength relative to controls. In 1988, 2500 ppm daminozide increased transplant growth while 660 ppm abscisic acid had no effect. Paclobutrazol (14 ppm) and drought improved field establishment of transplants as measured by shoot dry weight gain after field planting. In 1988, total fruit yield was reduced by 60 ppm paclobutrazol and GA. Although fruit size was unaffected by treatments, fruit number was reduced by GA. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); B-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α -(1,1-dimethylethyl) -N-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
Epicuticular waxes were analyzed to explain the visible differences in the waxy bloom of conditioned broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Group Italica `Green Duke') transplants. Seedlings (22 days old) were subjected to brushing (40 cycles per minute, 1 minute twice daily), wind (7 m·s-1 for 5 minutes twice daily), or moisture-stress conditioning (MSC; visible wilt for 2 to 4 hours daily) for 16 (1987) or 21 (1988) days during transplant production in the greenhouse. The epicuticular waxes of the uppermost fully expanded leaves were removed by dipping detached leaves into methylene chloride. The extract was derivatized with trimethylsilyl reagents and subjected to capillary gas chromatography. The primary epicuticular wax components were the nonpolar C29 compounds nonacosane, nonacosan-15-ol, and nonacosan-15-one, which were identified by mass spectrometry. In a Summer 1987 experiment, cuticle samples taken over time of treatment indicated acclimation to the conditioning treatments relative to untreated plants. After 9 days of treatment, the amount of total epicuticular waxes present on the leaves was reduced 38%, 31%, or 11% by wind, brushing, or MSC, respectively. However, after 15 days of treatment, the amount of cuticle present was reduced 15% by brushing but only 6% by wind and was 17% greater in MSC-treated plants. Two weeks after transplanting to the field there were no differences in the amount or composition of the epicuticular waxes. In Fall 1988, all treatments reduced plant growth, but only MSC tended to increase the amount of C29 epicuticular components during greenhouse production. Differences in the amounts of epicuticular waxes were no longer significant after 8 days in the field.
Brushing (40 strokes per 1.5 minutes, twice daily) or moisture stress conditioning (MSC) (daily nonlethal dry-down cycles) reduced seedling growth of two cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars in 1991 and three squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivars in 1991 and 1992. In both years, watermelon [Citrullus lanatus Thunb. (Matsum. & Nakai)] cultivars varied in responsiveness to brushing; brushing reduced stem length 0% to 44% over four cultivars in 1992. MSC reduced growth of all cultivars. Brushing increased the rate of water loss from detached leaves of cucumber, squash, and watermelon, whereas MSC decreased water loss from leaves of cucumber and squash. In 1991, under well-watered posttransplant conditions, MSC increased the mean relative growth rate (RGR) of cucumber and watermelon transplants in the greenhouse. Brushing increased the RGR of watermelon transplants. In 1992, MSC increased the RGR of squash and watermelon transplants grown under posttransplant drought-stressed conditions, while brushing had no effect. Both conditioning treatments controlled plant growth in the greenhouse without diminishing subsequent plant performance.
Pot-grown seedlings of seven lines [`Red Cherry' (RC), `Moneymaker' (MM), `Dantobi-yohzu' (DY), `Furikoma' (FK), RC × FK, MM × DY, and MM × FK] of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were brushed with a suspended steel bar for 1.5 minutes twice daily for 18 days (short-term treatment) before being transplanted to beds in a plastic greenhouse. Brushing was continued on a selected group of plants for an additional 10 days (long-term treatment). Short-term brushing slightly reduced the number of leaves, but markedly reduced leaf size and stem elongation of all lines. Dry weights of lamina, petioles, and stems of brushed plants of each cultivar except FK were less than those of the respective controls. However, the ratios of root: shoot dry weight of brushed plants were unchanged or higher than those of the respective controls. Short-term brushing did not increase the total number or weight of tomato fruits harvested over 1 month and did not improve fruit quality, size, or color. Long-term brushing reduced the total yield (number and weight) of fruits of RC and total fruit weight of DY. With respect to sensitivity to mechanical stress, cultivars with taller growth habits were more responsive to brushing than were those with shorter growth habits. These characteristic responses to mechanical stress also were exhibited by the hybrid lines.
Many shoot sampling variables were found to influence bud rest of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Unlike terminal buds, uppermost lateral buds on decapitated stem pieces were stimulated by wounding and developed throughout the rest period under forcing conditions in a growth chamber and their rate of development was an accurate measure of depth of rest. Neither segment length nor location on the original intact shoot affected bud rest intensity, but single-node segments were avoided because they became desiccated. Rate of development of resting buds in darkness increased with increasing temperature between 20° and 30°C. Bud rest intensity decreased with decreasing shoot length. Shoot location in the tree crown (shaded interior vs. exterior) did not affect bud rest intensity, but there was a significant interaction between crop load and shoot height in the tree. Many interactions were significant between various shoot characteristics and bud rest intensity. Spurs were compared to shoots on the basis of the percent of a population showing terminal budbreak after 28 days of forcing. Terminal buds on spurs entered rest later and emerged earlier than did terminal buds on short, medium or long shoots.
The influence of two fungicides—captan and thiram—on growth and 45Ca absorption by roots of `Starbrite' watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] seedlings was investigated. Unilateral application of Ca+2 and Al in agar induced curvature in roots from untreated and pretreated seeds. In untreated seeds, PCMBS inhibited Ca+2- and Al-induced root curvature by 82% and 92%, respectively. In commercially pretreated seeds (captan + thiram), PCMBS inhibited Ca+2- but not Al-induced root curvature. Captan or thiram also inhibited Ca+2- or Al-induced root curvature, and the effects of captan and thiram on root curvature were additive. Serial concentration (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 mg·liter-1) tests indicated that captan inhibited 45Ca absorption the most at 100 mg·liter-1, whereas thiram inhibited 45Ca absorption the most at 0.01 mg·liter-1. The effects of captan and thiram on 45Ca absorption were statistically additive. Thiram seemed to influence Ca+2 uptake by affecting exofacial sulfhydryl groups (a mode of action similar to that of PCMBS). DTT reversed the inhibitory effect of thiram on 45Ca absorption by 34% but did not reverse the effect of captan. A field test showed that acidic soil (pH 4.55) reduced leaf number; leaf, stem, shoot, and whole-plant dry weights; and stem length of 15-day-old seedlings. Although there was no difference in root dry weights or root: shoot ratios of plants from pretreated and untreated seeds planted in soil at pH 6.26, planting commercially pretreated seeds in acidic soil produced plants with greater root dry weights and root: shoot dry weight ratios than those from untreated seeds. Seedlings showed a greater response to seed treatment in early growth stages. Captan and thiram may have influenced growth characteristics by inhibiting Al uptake of seedlings planted in acidic soil. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the influence of the fungicides captan and thiram on mineral ion uptake in roots. Chemical names used: p-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS), dithiothreitol (DTT), N-trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide (captan), tetramethylthiuram disulfide (thiram).
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum ‘Burpee's Black Beauty’) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. ‘Wells II’] seedlings were assigned to a greenhouse or a windless or windy outdoor environment. Plants within each environment received either periodic seismic (shaking) or thigmic (flexing or rubbing) treatments, or were left undisturbed. Productivity (dry weight) and dimensional (leaf area and stem length) growth parameters generally were reduced more by mechanical stress in the greenhouse (soybean) or outdoor-windless environment (eggplant) than in the outdoor windy environment. Outdoor exposure enhanced both stem and leaf specific weights, whereas mechanical stress enhanced only leaf specific weight. Although both forms of controlled mechanical stress tended to reduce node and internode diameters of soybean, outdoor exposure increased stem diameter.
Epicuticular lipids were extracted from the foliage of six deciduous and one evergreen azalea genotypes (Rhododendron sp.) and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The relationship of leaf-surface lipid composition with measures of resistance to azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides Scott, was evaluated. Each genotype had a distinct epicuticular lipid composition. The major surface lipid components from all test taxa were n-alkanes and triterpenoids. In the most resistant genotypes [R. canescens Michaux and R. periclymenoides (Michaux) Shinners] ursolic acid, n-hentriacontane, and n-nonacosane were the most abundant epicuticular lipids. The lipids present in largest proportion among all susceptible deciduous genotypes tested were α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and n-nonacosane. The proportions of the lipid components from the same plant of each genotype varied between spring and fall samples. Among classes of lipids, n-alkanes, n-1-alkanols, and triterpenoids had significant correlations with azalea lace bug behavior on host plants. Among individual components, heptadecanoic acid, n-hentriacontane, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and one unknown compound (with major mass spectra 73/179/192/284/311) were significantly negatively correlated with host plant susceptibility to azalea lace bug, as measured by oviposition, leaf area damaged, egg and nymphal development, and nymphal survivorship. Triacontanol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and three unknowns were significantly positively correlated with host plant susceptibility. Acceptance or rejection by azalea lace bug to a particular plant may be mediated by a balance of positively and negatively interpreted sensory signals evoked by plant chemicals. This study indicated that the high levels of resistance observed in R. canescens and R. periclymenoides may be due to the lesser amount or the absence of attractants and stimulants for feeding or oviposition.