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  • Author or Editor: John. E. Erwin x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Interaction between simulated shipping and rooting temperature and harvest year was studied on Lilium longiflorum. Bulb dormancy and maturity appear to be separate phenomenon and are affected by temperature differently. Shoot emergence (an indicator of release from dormancy) was hastened by 10 °C shipping and 10 to 20 °C rooting temperatures in both years. Flower induction was affected differently by simulated shipping and rooting temperatures during 1992 and 1993, indicating that bulb maturity differed between the 2 years. Final leaf and flower number decreased because of shipping or rooting temperature, but only when bulbs were mature and received cool temperatures (<16 °C) before a 6-week vernalization treatment. Immature bulbs (at harvest) are unresponsive to vernalizing shipping and rooting temperatures. Prevernalization handling temperature and vernalization treatment length should vary with year based on degree of bulb maturity to achieve consistency in final morphology. Internode length is associated more with the time elongation is suppressed after dormancy is broken than with flower induction (where internode length increases as the length of time elongation is suppressed after breaking of dormancy increases).

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Thirty-six Hibiscus L. species were grown for 20 weeks under three lighting treatments at 15, 20, or 25 ± 1.5 °C air temperature to identify flowering requirements for each species. In addition, species were subjectively evaluated to identify those species with potential ornamental significance based on flower characteristics and plant form. Lighting treatments were 9 hour ambient light (St. Paul, Minn., November to May, 45 °N), ambient light plus a night interruption using incandescent lamps (2 μmol·m-2·s-1; 2200 to 0200 hr), or ambient light plus 24-hour supplemental lighting from high-pressure sodium lamps (100 μmol·m-2·s-1). Five day-neutral, six obligate short-day, six facultative short-day, three obligate long-day, and one facultative long-day species were identified. Fifteen species did not flower. Temperature and lighting treatments interacted to affect leaf number below the first flower and/or flower diameter on some species. Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern, H. cisplatinus St.-Hil., H. radiatus Cav., and H. trionum L. were selected as potential new commercially significant ornamental species.

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Flowering of many herbaceous ornamentals is reduced or eliminated under high temperatures. On warm, sunny days, greenhouse growers often cover crops with light-reducing screening materials to reduce air and plant temperature. However, low irradiance can also reduce flowering on many species. To examine the impacts of temperature and irradiance on herbaceous ornamental flowering and to select a model to study high temperature-reduced flowering, Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) `Rocket Rose', Calendula officinalis L. (calendula) `Calypso Orange', Impatiens wallerana Hook.f. (impatiens) `Super Elfin White', Mimulus ×hybridus Hort. ex Siebert & Voss (mimulus) `Mystic Yellow', and Torenia fournieri Linden ex E. Fourn (torenia) `Clown Burgundy' were grown at constant 32 ± 1 °C or 20 ± 1.5 °C under a 16-hour photoperiod with daily light integrals (DLI) of 10.5, 17.5, or 21.8 mol·m-2·d-1. Flower bud number per plant (all flower buds ≥1 mm in length when the first flower opened) of all species was lower at 32 than 20 °C. Reduction in flower bud number per plant at 32 compared to 20 °C varied from 30% (impatiens) to 95% (torenia) under a DLI of 10.5 mol·m-2·d-1. Flower diameter of all species except snapdragon was less at 32 than 20 °C. Decreasing DLI from 21.8 to 10.5 mol·m-2·d-1 decreased flower diameter of all species except snapdragon. Calendula, impatiens, and torenia leaf number below the first flower was greater at 32 than 20 °C, regardless of DLI. Increasing DLI from 10.5 to 17.5 mol·m-2·d-1 increased shoot dry mass gain rate of all species, regardless of temperature. Further increasing DLI from 17.5 to 21.8 mol·m-2·d-1 at 20 °C increased shoot dry mass gain rate of all species except snapdragon and mimulus, indicating that these species may be light saturated below 21.8 mol·m-2·d-1. Under DLIs of 17.5 and 21.8 mol·m-2·d-1 shoot dry mass gain rate was lower at 32 than 20 °C for all species except torenia. Torenia shoot dry mass gain rate was 129 mg·d-1 at 20 °C compared to 252 mg·d-1 at 32 °C under a DLI of 17.5 mol·m-2·d-1. We suggest torenia may be a good model to study the basis for inhibition of flowering under high temperatures as flowering, but not dry mass gain, was reduced at 32 °C.

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Day (DT) and night temperatures (NT) influenced Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Nellie White' stem elongation and development rate from the visible bud stage (VB) until anthesis. Plant height increase after VB was a function of the difference (DIF) between DT and NT (DT-NT). Plant height increased 90% as DIF increased from - 16 to 16C. A cubic model described bud development rate as a function of temperature from 14 to 30C. A linear model adequately described bud development rate as a function of average daily temperature from 14 to 21C. Based on the linear model, bud development rate increased 0.05 per day for each 1C increase in average daily temperature. The base temperature for bud development, i.e., the temperature at which bud development rate was 0, was calculated as 3.5C.

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Fuchsia × hybrids `Dollar Princess' plants were grown under 35 day/night temperature (DT/NT) environments ranging from 10 to 30C over 2 years. Plants were grown under short days (SD) (9-hour 15-minute photoperiod) or long days (LD) (9-hour 15-minute photoperiod plus a 4-hour night interruption) within each environment. The influence of temperature on Fuchsia stem elongation and leaf expansion was best described by the relationship or difference (DIF) between DT and NT (DT - NT) rather than actual DT and NT between 10 and 25C. Both internode length and leaf area increased linearly as DIF increased from - 15 to + 15C with DT and NT between 10 and 25C. Internode length increased 0.129 and 0.071 cm/1C increase in DIF for LD- and SD-grown plants, respectively. Individual leaf area increased 0.52 and 0.40 cm2/1C increase in DIF for LD- and SD-grown plants, respectively. DT or NT above 24C reduced stem elongation and leaf expansion, regardless of DIF. The response of stem elongation and leaf expansion to DIF was greater on a percent basis when plants were grown under SD and LD, respectively. On an absolute basis, both internode length and leaf area were greater on LD-grown plants. Branching increased as average daily temperature decreased from 25 to 12C. Photoperiod did not affect branching.

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Abstract

The effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), day temperature (DT) and night temperature (NT) on leaf number, leaf unfolding rate and shoot length were determined for chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. ‘Bright Golden Anne’) grown under short day (SD) conditions. A functional relationship was first developed to predict if flower bud appearance would occur within 100 SD under a given set of environmental conditions. All combinations of DT and NT in the range from 10° to 30°C were predicted to result in flower bud appearance at higher PPF than 10.8 mol·day−1·m−2. The number of leaves formed below the flower increased quadratically as DT and/or NT increased from 10° to 30°. As PPF increased from 1.8 to 21.6 mol·day−1·m−2, one to two fewer leaves were formed per shoot. Rate of leaf unfolding increased linearly with increasing average daily temperature from 0.2 leaves/day at 10° to 0.5 leaves/day at 30°. Internode length was highly correlated with the difference between DT and NT (DIF = DT – NT) such that increasing DIF from –12° to 12° resulted in progressively longer internodes.

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