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- Author or Editor: John Masiunas x
Experiments determined the effectiveness of the bipyridinium herbicides paraquat and diquat and of the diphenyl ether herbicide lactofen to desiccate onion (Allium cepa L.) shoots without affecting bulb quality and storage life. Paraquat, applied once, desiccated 80% of onion shoots within 3 days. Diquat desiccated ≈ 60% of onion shoots within 10 days of treatment. Lactofen caused slight necrosis but did not adequately desiccate onion shoots. Diquat and paraquat reduced sprouting of `Red Wethersfield' more than of `White Portugal'. Chemical names used: 6,7-dihydrodipyrido[l,2 2',1'-c] pyrazinediium ion (diquat); (±)2-ethoxy-l-methyl-2-oxoethy1 5-[2chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxyl] -2-nitrobenzoate (lactofen); 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion (paraquat).
Eastern black nightshade is one of the problematic weeds in vegetables and soybeans in the Midwest. It is representative of a rapidly growing complex of broadleaf weeds where herbicide resistance would be expected to occur. Eastern black nightshade calli lines that are resistant and susceptible to acifluorfen were maintained on the medium without the herbicide. After two years, these lines were tested for tolerance to acifluorfen and paraquat. Tolerance to acifluorfen was maintained in the previously selected lines. The lines were also cross tolerant to paraquat. Plants were regenerated from these calli lines and grown in the greenhouse. 14C-acifluorfen and 14C-paraquat uptake, translocation, and metabolism were studied.
The Cooperative Extension Service (CES) is undergoing a period of self-evaluation (Gerber, 1985) and change (USDA Extension Service, 1988). As part of on-going discussions on the future of the CES at the Univ. of Illinois, a survey of the academic staff in the Dept. of Horticulture was conducted. The survey quantified the reaction of horticultural academic staff to recommendations taken from a federal study on the future of extension (USDA Economic Committee on Organization and Policy, 1987) and statements solicited from the Dept. of Horticulture Extension Committee. Recipients of the survey were asked to state their level of agreement or disagreement with the statements on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = no opinion, 4 = agree, and 5 = strongly agree).
Repeated callus sub-culture reduce the regeneration capacity in many species. Our studies determined the effect of genotype and medium on regeneration of several Solanum and Lycopersicon genotypes from long-term callus cultures. In the first study, 13 genotypes were transferred to regeneration medium, including: Murashige and Skoog plus Gamborg Vitamins (MG); Murashige and Skoog (MS); Gamborg (GM); and white (WM). The greatest shoot regeneration was on the MG medium, containing the highest levels of thiamine. Shoot differentiation was greatest with 0.2 mg/l IAA and 2 mg/l BA. No plants were regenerated on GM or WM medium. In a second study, the effect of thiamine (0 to 200 mg/l) on shoot regeneration of the L. peruvianum genotypes PI199380, PI126945, PI251301, and PI128652, along with Solanum ptycanthum, Solanum nigrum, and L. esculentum `Diego' was evaluated. Shoot regeneration of Solanum ptycanthum, Solanum nigrum, L. peruvianum PI 199380 and PI25301 was best with 20 mg/l of thiamine.
The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal and genotypic variation in regenerated plants of Solarium and Lycopersicon. Calli of Lycopersicon peruvianum genotypes PI199380, PI126345, PI251301, and LA1373, along with Solanum ptycanthum were transferred onto media consisting of MS salts with Gamborg vitamins. The shoots formed were rooted in vitro and transferred to greenhouse soil. Actively growing root tips were harvested and pretreated, fixed, hydrolyses and stained. Pollen mother cells were fixed in propionic alcohol solution and stained with aceto-carmine. The number of chromosomes were counted. The greatest variation was in Solanum ptycanthum with chromosome numbers ranging from 18 to 60 (2n=24). Progeny analysis for 12 somaclones of Solarium ptycanthum was done by selfing for two generations. Morphology, shoot height, and weight were determined in each generation. The amount of variation differed among the somaclonal lines.
Friable callus of Solanum ptycanthum and L. peruvianum PI199380 clone 149 were subcultured on liquid Murashige and Skoog salts and Gamborg Vitamin medium with 2,4-D (1mg/l) until a fine suspension of cells was obtained. The suspension cultured cells were then plated on selection medium. Twenty-five acifluorfen-tolerant cell lines of Solanum ptycanthum and fourteen tolerant Lycopersicon peruvianum cell lines were obtained by a stepwise increase in concentration of acifluorfen. Acifluorfen-tolerant cell lines were transferred on to regeneration media with the herbicide. Shoot regeneration differed depending on the cell line and acifluorfen concentration, ranging from 0 to 37 plants per calli. As acifluorfen concentration increased in the regeneration media, the number of shoots and shoot height decreased. There was a wide range of variation in shoot morphology, which depended on the cell line.
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate processing pumpkin and processing squash tolerance to preemergence herbicides. The experiments were randomized complete block designs with three or four replications. The herbicides were applied after seeding the crop using a CO2-pressurized sprayer delivering 233 L/ha. We evaluated clomazone alone, and in combination with either halosulfuron or sulfentrazone. The first experiment was conducted in Morton, Ill., using `Libby's Select' processing pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata). None of the treatments caused any significant pumpkin phytotoxicity. On 7 July all treatments reduced the number of grass weeds compared to the untreated control. There were no differences in grass control between the herbicide treatments. Broadleaf control was best in sulfentrazone at 0.56 kg/ha or clomazone + halosulfuron at 0.56 + 0.13 kg/ha and worst in the untreated control. Weed control decreased by the 29 July rating; grass and broadleaf weed control was unacceptable in all treatments due to infestation with perennial weeds. Sulfentrazone alone or with clomazone was safe for use on pumpkins in heavier soils. The second experiment, conducted in Champaign, Ill., used `NK530' processing squash (Cucurbita maxima). None of the treatments caused any squash phytotoxicity. The best control on 14 July was with combinations of clomazone and sulfentrazone. On 10 Aug., all herbicide treatments were similar in their control of broadleaf weeds. Sulfentrazone and halosulfuron do not injure processing pumpkin or squash when applied either alone or in combination with clomazone.
Rye (Secale cereale) residues used in an alternative cropping system will affect nutrients, soil moisture, and soil temperatures. Each of these factors can affect tomato fruit quality. A field study was conducted comparing the effects of a rye cover crop, tomato variety, and N fertility on tomato fruit quality. In October, cereal rye was seeded at 100 kg·ha–1 to one-half of the plots. The rye was killed in mid-May by applying glyphosate at 1.1 kg·ha–1. Tomato seedlings were planted into the rye and bare-ground plots in late May. Four tomato varieties differing in cracking and soluble solids were used. There were two fertilizer regimes, no additional fertilizer, and N fertilizer applied broadcast before tomato planting, and as a sidedress based on soil tests, leaf analysis, and current recommendations. Tomato quality was evaluated based on 1) color as assessed using a Minolta chromameter, 2) cracking based on type and severity, and 3) soluble solids as determined by HPLC.