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  • Author or Editor: John M. Labavitch x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

A method was devised for quantitation of methylated indoleacetic (MeIAA) using a nitrogen-phosphorus (N-P) detector gas chromatograph with sensitivity greater than 5 pg MeIAA. Parameters are described for use conditions of the N-P detector.

Open Access

Abstract

A gas chromatograph equipped with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector was used for quantitation of cytokinins. The described system, utilizing permethylated derivatives, will detect as little as 0.1 pg adenine, isopentenyl adenine, benzylamino purine, and kinetin, and 10 pg zeatin. As with all highly sensitive instrumentation, scrupulous procedures for sample preparation are essential.

Open Access

Abstract

Intact almond fruits [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb.] showed a transient increase in ethylene production at the time of gum duct initiation. Treatment with ethylene promoted gum duct formation if applied 1 week before natural duct initiation, but had no effect when applied earlier. Silver thiosulfate, applied either as a spray or through bark-feeding, was found to delay natural duct initiation. AO A also delayed duct initiation when applied through bark-feeding, but not when applied as a spray. Chemical name used: aminooxyacetic acid (AOA).

Open Access

Abstract

Cell wall-degrading enzymes were extracted from the cell wall free space of mesocarp tissue from immature almonds [Prunus dulcis(Mill.)D.A. Webb, ‘Nonpareil’]. The activities of several of these enzymes were found to correlate with the development of gum ducts in this tissue. Polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) and 1,3-β-D-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.39) activities rose sharply at, or just prior to, the early schizogenous stage of duct initiation, while increases in α-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.22), β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23), α-arabinosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), and α-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.24) activities were correlated with the later lysigenous stage of duct formation. Cell wall analysis of almond mesocarp tissue sampled the week preceding gum duct formation determined that the predominant noncellulosic sugars present in the mesocarp cell walls are arabinose, galactose, xylose, and glucose, with smaller amounts of rhamnose and mannose also present. The walls also contain a high percentage of galacturonic acid and trace amounts of glucuronic acid. Methylation analysis of the cell walls confirmed that many of the specific glycosidic linkages that are cleaved by the enzymes tested are present in the mesocarp cell walls immediately prior to gum duct formation.

Open Access

Abstract

As the pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. Kerman) nut matured, kernel moisture, respiration rate, and total protein content decreased, while kernel dry weight increased. At optimum maturity, ether-extractable fat and total sugar contents reached a peak. Either or both of these constituents may be useful as a maturity index, in addition to ease of hull separation, to determine optimum harvest date for pistachio nuts. Nut quality was acceptable for harvest during a 2- to 3-week period bracketing the time when the hull separates easily from the shell. Compositional analyses of hulls indicated some limitations on their potential use as animal feed.

Open Access

Abstract

The chemical composition and sensory attributes of pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera L.) were studied in relation to genotype, production area, maturity, moisture content, degree of shell staining, and storage conditions. ‘Kerman’ kernals were rated higher in firmness and sweetness, and lower in crispness, bitterness, and rancidity than those of the ‘Red Aleppo’, ‘Trabonella’, and ‘Bronte’ cultivars. Differences in composition and flavor of ‘Kerman’ pistachios harvested from 3 production areas were small. Nuts harvested at near optimum maturity were superior in quality to those harvested earlier or later. Drying nuts to 4–6% moisture levels resulted in the best quality. Shell staining did not influence eating quality of kernels but detrimentally affected shell appearance. Dried pistachio nuts can be kept for 12 months at 20°C. Moisture content influenced crispness and firmness while total sugars content was related to sweetness and overall flavor intensity.

Open Access

The variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid content of walnut (Juglans regia L.) oils was determined by analysis of samples isolated from specimens growing in four germplasm collections [California (55 cultivars), Washington (64 seedlings), China (12 cultivars), and France (20 cultivars)]. In addition, the impact of within-state geographic differences on oil composition was examined by comparing samples from three California cultivars (`Ashley', `Hartley', and `Franquette') grown in three locations. Local environmental effects on oil composition of `Chico' were also examined by comparing 1) samples collected from shaded and sun-exposed locations of the same trees and 2) samples collected from trees subjected to three irrigation regimes. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content, as a percentage of total fatty acids, ranged from 47.2% in nuts from PI 142323 from France to 81.0% in `Ashley' from California. However, our data indicate that environment, genotype, nut maturity, and their interactions all contribute significantly to variation in the degree of unsaturation of walnut oil.

Free access

Abstract

Third-generation navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) damage to almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) kernels is a serious problem in the California almond industry. An early harvest is one means of reducing losses and increasing crop quality. A successful early harvest was accomplished 2 to 3 weeks before the normal harvest date, with no perceptible effect on kernel quality. Percent hullsplit was correlated with nut removal, providing a field guide to acceptable maturity. Within defined limits, yield, drying rate, and hullability of early harvested almonds were acceptable.

Open Access