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  • Author or Editor: John Clark x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

To achieve an economic harvest of tomatoes mechanically under conditions of relatively high rainfall and a relatively short growing season, a new approach to field seeding was explored. Seeding of ‘New Yorker’ and ‘H 1630’ cultivars at plant populations ranging from 20,000 to 110,000 plants per acre resulted in canning yields of 24 tons per acre for ‘New Yorker’ when seeded at approximately 90,000 plants per acre with 5 rows on a 5-foot bed. Both preplant and sidedressed N as well as preplant K decreased early once-over harvest yields of ripe fruit. Conversely, the addition of these same fertility treatments, in most cases, significantly increased the once-over harvest yield of green fruit. Nitrogen resulted in a significant reduction of fruit size, while K, when it had an influence, caused an increase in fruit size. Fruit size, in most cases, decreased as plant population was increased.

Open Access

Flower bud development was studied in `Cherokee', `Boysen', and `Marion' blackberries (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson). In `Cherokee' (erect type), the transition to reproductive development in buds on the branch canes occurred during September in Arkansas and Oregon. Transitions of buds in the axils of the most basal nodes (proximal to the main cane) and the most distal nodes lagged behind buds in the midsection (about nodes 6 to 10). Along the midsection of branch canes, the buds developed uniformly. In buds of `Boysen' and `Marion' (trailing type), the transition to reproductive development occurred in October and sepal primordia were observed in most buds examined by November. Progression of floral bud development continued into January, but at a slower rate than in autumn. Buds on the main canes (>3 m long) of `Boysen' and `Marion' remained at a more advanced stage of flower bud differentiation than buds on the basal branch canes. In both cultivars, buds from the middle one-third section, and sometimes buds from the bottom one-third section, tended to be more advanced than those buds in the top one-third section during much of the sampling period. The results suggest that rate and patterns of flower bud development vary among cultivars grown in different locations. However, the pattern of flower bud development was not in a basipetal fashion on main or branch canes.

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Transition to reproductive development and subsequent development of floral primordia (e.g., sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils) were determined in several blackberry (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson) cultivars (Boysen, Cherokee, Chester Thornless, Marion, and Thornless Evergreen) growing in one or more locations (Clarksville, Ark., Aurora and Hillsboro, Ore., and Kearneysville, W. Va.). Also, daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures were recorded at three sites (Clarksville, Aurora, and Kearneysville) for the September to April sampling period. In buds of `Boysen' and `Marion' from Oregon, sepal primordia were first observed in November and December, respectively. Further floral bud development continued into January. Sepal development in `Cherokee' buds occurred in October in Oregon and in December in Arkansas. At all three sites, the buds of `Chester Thornless' blackberry remained undifferentiated until spring. The average mean temperatures in Oregon were generally well above 5 °C during the bud sampling period, but were near 0 °C on most days from mid-December to January in Arkansas and from December to late-February in West Virginia. The phenology of flower bud differentiation varied among the cultivars and was strongly influenced by prevailing winter temperatures. The results suggest that the shortening day lengths of late summer trigger flower bud development in blackberry. Floral bud development in blackberry, once initiated, was continuous; however, periods of low temperature (<2 °C) can arrest development.

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To determine if any of the available techniques for estimating stability in different environments are useful in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade and V. corymbosum L.), 14 clones were evaluated in nine environments for ripening date and yield. Type 1 and 2 stability statistics, plots for each genotype mean versus its coefficient of variation (cv) across environments (genotype grouping), environmental index regression, and cluster analyses were compared. The highest yielding rabbiteye and southern highbush clones across locations were not deemed stable by Type 1 and Type 2 stability statistics, genotype grouping, or environmental regression technique. No evidence of curvilinear response was found. The nonparametric cluster analysis with known cultivars included appears to be most useful compared to other methods of estimating stability used in this study.

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The effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on growth, photosynthesis, and postharvest characteristics of `Meijikatar' potted roses were determined. Plants were grown in 350, 700, or 1050 μl CO2/liter until they reached 50% flower bud coloration and then were placed into dark storage for 5 days at 4 or 16C. Plants grown in 700 or 1050 μl CO2/liter reached the harvest stage earlier and were taller at harvest than plants produced in 350 μl CO2/liter, but there were no differences in the number of flowers and flower buds per plant among CO2 treatments. Plants grown in early spring were taller and had more flowers and flower buds than plants grown in late winter. Shoot and root growth of plants grown in 700 or 1050 μl CO2/liter were higher than in plants produced in 350 μl CO2/liter, with plants grown in early spring showing greater increases than plants grown in late winter. Immediately after storage, plants grown in 350 μl CO2/liter and stored at 4C had the fewest etiolated shoots, while plants grown in 1050 μl CO2/liter and stored at 16C had the most. Five days after removal from storage, chlorophyll concentration of upper and lower leaves had been reduced by ≈50% from the day of harvest. Carbon dioxide enrichment had no effect on postharvest leaf chlorosis, but plants grown in early spring and stored at 16C had the most leaf chlorosis while plants grown in late winter and stored at 4C had the least leaf chlorosis.

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Abstract

Young highbush blueberry seedlings (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) from 26 crosses of a partial diallel were inoculated with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands by dipping the roots into a mycelial slurry. The seedlings were grown 90 days in sand in the greenhouse and rated for resistance to root rot damage. Of the 2412 inoculated seedlings, 214 (8.9%) were resistant. The 2 parental clones that produced the largest percentage of resistant seedlings were US 141 and G-164; within their progenies, each produced an average of 18% resistant seedlings. Mean squares for general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were significant at the 1% and 5% levels, respectively. The mean square estimate for GCA was about 5 times higher than that for SCA, While both additive and nonadditive effects are important, rapid improvement can be made by phenotypic selection. Resistance to P. cinnamomi in blueberry progenies studied appears to be partially recessive and quantitatively inherited. Inoculation of young seedlings by root dipping in a mycelial slurry of P. cinnamomi and growing the seedlings in sand provided rapid identification of resistant plants.

Open Access

Stenospermocarpic seedlessness from Vitis vinifera L. is being introgressed into muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) germplasm through the use of a cross-fertile hybrid of the two species. Recently, a sequence-tagged site (STS) molecular marker, p3_VvAGL11, has been developed which enables detection of the dominant allele controlling stenospermocarpic seedlessness in V. vinifera. This marker was evaluated in six Euvitis Planch. × Muscadinia Planch. hybrid progenies to determine its association with seedlessness in this material. The presence of the 214-bp seedlessness-associated p3_VvAGL11 allele in seedling vines resulted in a nearly 3-fold reduction in mean seed fresh weight (MSFW) and significantly reduced mean seed weight per berry (MSWB), percent berry weight composed of seed (BWCS), and mean berry weight (MBW). When the lack of lignified seed was used as the determinant of seedlessness, the p3_VvAGL11 marker was able to correctly judge seedlessness in ≈85% of the progeny. Analysis of seedlessness in the progenies was hampered by poor vigor and fruiting ability of the hybrid seedlings. The p3_VvAGL11 marker shows potential to speed the introduction of the stenospermocarpic seedlessness into Muscadinia germplasm by identifying seedless progeny at the seedling stage.

Free access

Clonal micropropagation studies with silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) included experiments with various shoot. explant types, cytokinins, and stock plant maturation levels. These trials led to successful explant establishment, axillary shoot proliferation, rooting of microshoots, and establishment of plantlets in the greenhouse. Overall, the best cytokinin tested was the phenylurea derivative TDZ. Shoot proliferation on juvenile explants was poor with kinetin, 2iP, and BA. Only zeatin at 10 μm was comparable to TDZ. TDZ at 10 nm was optimal for both juvenile and adult nodal explants. Juvenile explants that were held in vitro for 4 months commonly had at least 60 axillary shoots that could be subculture or excised for rooting. Microshoots rooted within 2 weeks. Following rooting, silver maple plantlets could be transplanted into a growing medium and placed directly onto a greenhouse bench. Studies were also conducted on rooting stem cuttings (macropropagation). Single nodes from juvenile plants rooted under intermittent mist, regardless of auxin application; however, shoot-tip cuttings from adult trees rooted best when auxin in ethanol solution was applied. Chemical names used: N- phenyl- N' -1,2,3 -thiadiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron, TDZ), N- (2-furanylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (kinetin), isopentenyladenine (2iP), benzyladenine (BA), (E)-2-methyl-4-(1H-purin-6-ylamino)-2-buten-1-ol (zeatin).

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During 1987, we selected the six fastest-growing seedlings or clones from each of 15 provenances that represented the natural distribution range of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.). Shoots from all 90 trees were cut into nodal segments, rooted as cuttings, and maintained as clonal stock plants in the greenhouse. Rooting was generally excellent and more than half of the clones rooted ≥90%. At the same time, explants were obtained from these field-grown trees and many were established in vitro as aseptic cultures by first pretreating with benomyl and rifampicin. Single-node explants from the greenhouse-grown clonal stock plants were also established and multiplied in vitro. There was a significant effect of clone within provenance on all in vitro growth characteristics. All clones proliferated axillary shoots, but not all at the same rates. Although statistically significant, low correlation coefficients indicated that micropropagation results were not good predictors of nursery performance of the populations from which the clones were selected, nor of the climatic conditions at the site of origin of the trees. The micropropagation system reported herein, therefore, should be applicable to a wide variety of silver maple genotypes. Chemical name used: methyl [1-[butylamino)carbonyl]-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate(benomyl).

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Muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) vines may be male (M), female (F), or hermaphroditic (H). Male flowers have only filaments and anthers, whereas female and hermaphroditic flowers are morphologically perfect. Female flowers are distinguished from hermaphroditic flowers by their reflexed stamens (as opposed to upright) and nonfunctional pollen. Primers derived from previously identified candidate genes located at the sex locus of Vitis vinifera L. were used to generate amplicons from M, F, and H muscadine cultivars. Sequence analysis of the amplicons revealed insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) gene (VR006) and a WRKY transcription factor 21 gene (VR009). Primers were designed to create diagnostic markers for each indel polymorphism. Associations between the marker alleles and the plant sex trait were examined in a wide range of muscadine germplasm and in segregating populations derived from F × H, F × M, and H × H crosses. VR006 produced a codominant marker that was able to differentiate the female-associated allele from the male- and hermaphroditic-associated alleles. The marker was able to detect female plants and will be suitable for screening breeding program progenies. VR009 was able to detect the presence of the female allele in most germplasm, but a crossover event appears to have separated the marker from the sex locus in some germplasm. As shown in previous muscadine genetic studies, H × H-derived populations produced male seedlings. Marker analysis of these populations indicates that male flowers only occur in seedlings which are heterozygous for F- and H-associated marker alleles and inheritance of flower type in muscadine remains unclear.

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