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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging is currently being investigated as a nondestructively and noninvasively observing plant-water relationships, Researchers have not considered the effects of magnetic fields on plant growth and development. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on seed water imbibition and radicle growth. Corn (cv. pioneer 3379), pea (cv. little marvel), and soybean (cvs. forrest and D86-4669) seeds were embedded in petri dishes with water saturated Smither's oasis porus foam, and were oriented for the East, South, West, and North. Seeds were exposed to either 1.5 Tesla or 1×10-10 Tesla static magnetic field for 48 hours. Changes in seed weights and radicle lengths were measured. Results showed that the strong magnetic field and seed orientations had no effect on the water imbibition rate. However, growth of corn and pea radicles was affected by the magnetic field. The 1.5 Tesla magnetic field enhanced the growth of corn radicle length, whereas it retarded the growth of pea radicles.

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Trichoderma has been known to control soil-borne pathogens and to enhance plant growth and development. The objective of the study was to evaluate dispersal of Trichoderma via irrigation water in container production. 3.81 × 30 cm PVC pipes were filled with Sunshine Mix #5 up to 25 cm. Ten tomato seeds, boiled and coated with T. harzianum, were placed at 0.5 cm depth in each pipe. All treatments were irrigated carefully with 100 ml of DD water from top every 2 days. Before and one hour after irrigation the potting mix was sampled from 5 depths at 5.5 cm intervals every 2 days for 8 days to determine Trichoderma density. Trichoderma density was significantly higher in after irrigation. Trichoderma dispersed up to 25 cm deep in container potting mix after 4 days via irrigation water. This study successfully demonstrates that Trichoderma can be rapidly dispersed via irrigation water.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently considered as a nondestructive and noninvasive method for observing the distribution, concentration, and status of water in biological materials. However, effects of static magnetic fields of MRI systems on plant growth and development remain controversial. This study was conducted to investigate the water imbibition and radicle growth of Pisum sativum (cv. Little Marvel), Zea mays (cv. Pioneer 3379), and Glycine max (cv. Forrest) seeds oriented to four directions and exposed to six different magnetic field strengths commonly used in MRI systems.

Seeds were embedded in a water saturated synthetic foam medium, and were oriented, with respect to their hilum or embryo, to the east, south, west, or north. Seeds were then exposed to either 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, or 15 kilogauss static magnetic fields for 48 hours (water imbibition) or 54 hours (radicle growth).

The orientation of seeds and the magnetic field strengths had no effect on water imbibition or radicle growth of seeds tested. However, long term exposure retarded pea radicle growth in 2 KG treatment, enhanced soybean radicle growth in 10 KG treatment, but had no effect on corn radicle growth.

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A top-and-bottom split root system of Lycopersicon lycopersicum `Burpee's Pixie' was developed using a nonferromagnetic phenolic foam growing medium. The objective of the study was to observe hydrodynamic activity in the roots and substrate when one side of the split root system was dehydrated. After withholding water for 22 days from the top block, the plant and substrate were scanned for 46.5 hours every 30 min using a Siemens 1.5 tesla magnetron whole body imaging system operating at 63 MHz. Resulting images were compiled into a time lapse movie and clearly showed selective root hydration and dehydration on the dry side of the split root system. Those changes in the root MRI signal intensity suggest a cyclic hydration of the roots and a partitioning of water among roots in dry environment.

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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging is currently being investigated as a nondestructively and noninvasively observing plant-water relationships, Researchers have not considered the effects of magnetic fields on plant growth and development. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on seed water imbibition and radicle growth. Corn (cv. pioneer 3379), pea (cv. little marvel), and soybean (cvs. forrest and D86-4669) seeds were embedded in petri dishes with water saturated Smither's oasis porus foam, and were oriented for the East, South, West, and North. Seeds were exposed to either 1.5 Tesla or 1×10-10 Tesla static magnetic field for 48 hours. Changes in seed weights and radicle lengths were measured. Results showed that the strong magnetic field and seed orientations had no effect on the water imbibition rate. However, growth of corn and pea radicles was affected by the magnetic field. The 1.5 Tesla magnetic field enhanced the growth of corn radicle length, whereas it retarded the growth of pea radicles.

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Selling cut-flowers to the tourists visiting a vacation location offers an additional outlet to local growers of orchids. Advantages include a shorter marketing channel, higher local prices and the avoidance of airfreight costs and tariffs. Disadvantages include higher direct marketing costs including such items as packaging, promotion and access to the tourists, phytosanitary problems and lack of knowledge about tourists preferences for different flower cultivars and colors. This paper presents the results of a survey of the direct marketing of orchids to tourists in Honolulu, Bangkok, Phuket, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. Pricing strategies, access to tourists and phytosanitary problems are discussed.

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Apple growers in Kentucky normally control pests on a preventative schedule involving fifteen or more chemical applications annually. IPM technology designed to provide growers information about the threat of diseases and insects was used in a demonstration plot in a Daviess County orchard and in the U.K. research orchard, Princeton. The IPM systems used in Daviess County resulted in 6 less applications of pesticides than the traditional system, a savings of approximately $130 per acre. When compared to the traditional preventative spray schedule, the IPM treated apples showed no differences in fruit quality and in orchard diseases and insect infestations. The decreased pesticide use has the potential to reduce applicator exposure, residues on fruit, and the environmental impact of these chemicals. The results of this demonstration were shared with and received an enthusiastic response from growers, Extension personnel, students, consumers, and the news media. The project demonstrated the feasibility of using apple IPM by a Kentucky grower, and it provided students an insight into applied biology.

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Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of biological control measures to control Western Flower Thrips. Thrips population and preferred trap color were examined using sticky trap tapes in 5 fluorescent colors, orange, yellow, green, blue and pink. Results indicated that pink is more effective in attracting thrips than the traditional yellow or the newly acclaimed blue sticky traps on the market now. Studies were also conducted to determine if the entomogenous nematode (Steinernema feltiae) could invade and parasitize Western Flower Thrips, and which stage of the thrips life cycle was most susceptible to parasitization. Thrips were dissected and checked for nematode invasion at 24, 48 and 72 hours after inoculation. S. feltiae was found to invade the body cavity after 24 hours in the larval stage of Western Flower Thrips resulting in death.

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A set of 216 PCR-based molecular markers was screened for polymorphisms using two morphologically dissimilar broccoli lines, `VI-158' and `BNC'. Fifty-nine of these markers, representing 69 detected polymorphisms and two morphological markers, were used to construct a genetic linkage map of broccoli [Brassicaoleracea (L.) var. italica] from a population of 162 F2:3 families generated from the cross between these two lines. Ten genetic linkage groups were generated that spanned a distance of 468 cM with an average interval width of 9.4 cm. This map represents the first combined SSR and SRAP map of Brassica oleracea. Comparisons are made to existing maps of Brassicanapus and to inter-specific maps of Brassicaoleracea. To our knowledge this is the first linkage map of broccoli [Brassicaoleracea (L.) var. italica] and should provide a useful tool for the genetic analysis of traits specific to the italica subspecies.

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Optimum conditions for composting encourage and maintain the growth of microorganisms. Aerobic conditions must be maintained along with a 30 C: 1 N ratio and appropriate moisture levels. Our research found that P along with C and N are primary nutrients required by the microorganisms involved in composting. Phosphorus is a very important component of ATP and ADP, which drive most biochemical processes and are therefore necessary to all energy-driven processes. Results of this experiment show that MSW treatments with a minimum of 120 C: 1 P result in significantly higher temperatures during the composting process; lower final C: N ratios; greater volume reduction; and more available N in the final product. Emphasis of ongoing research is to determine appropriate C: P levels.

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