In three trials, 2004 crop loads were adjusted at the balloon stage of blossom development on heavily cropped whole apple trees by clipping all flower pedicels within a cluster while leaving the spur intact. Trees were adjusted to 0% crop (all flowers removed), 50% crop (half of all clusters removed), or left as 100% crop (no flowers removed). On `Cameo'/Bud.9, 400 ppm GA4+7 were applied to trees of each crop level at petal fall, 10 mm, 20 mm, or left unsprayed. At each crop load, GA4+7 marginally diminished the 2005 return bloom regardless of application timing, but the 2004 crop level was far more influential in 2005 flowering. In a second `Cameo'/Bud.9 trial, 0, 300, 600, or 900 ppm ethephon were applied to whole trees of each crop level at 45 DAFB. Ethephon generally demonstrated a rate response in improving the 2005 return bloom, but the 2005 flowering was more dramatically influenced by 2004 crop levels. On `Honeycrisp'/M.9, 300 ppm GA4+7 were applied to whole trees of each crop level at 10 mm. GA4+7 diminished 2005 return bloom at the 50% crop load, but spray effects were not as clear at the extreme 2004 crop levels. These results suggest that commercial floral inhibitors and promoters have difficulty overcoming endogenous effects of heavy or light bloom and crop in severely alternating apple trees. In a fourth trial, lightly cropped organic `Fuji'/MM.106 trees were sprayed with 0, 150, 300, or 450 ppm GA4 at petal fall, 10 mm, or 20 mm timings in 2004. The 2005 return bloom was inversely correlated with spray rates, with 10 mm showing more floral inhibition than other timings. Overall, `Cameo' was less sensitive to GA and ethephon than `Honeycrisp' or `Fuji'.
We conducted choice experiments with both strawberry producers and consumers. Consumer and producer willingness to pay (WTP) for the fruit attributes were estimated using mixed logit models. Through simulation using the mixed logit model results, we derived the market equilibrium prices, supply and demand curve, as well as quantities demanded and supplied for every fruit attribute. We found the highest equilibrium price was for strawberry internal color followed by flavor. Strawberry breeders can use the information when setting breeding targets, allocating resources appropriately during their breeding process and focusing on the improvement of attributes that produce the highest social surplus and total revenue.
Effects of temperature and the combination of liquid lime sulfur (LLS) and fish oil (FO) applied during bloom on pollen germination and pollen tube growth in flowers and fruit set were examined in apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). Percent germination of pollen of ‘Manchurian’ crabapples and ‘Golden Delicious’ apple flowers on the stigmatic surface of ‘Golden Delicious’ pistils increased with increasing temperature from 13 to 29 °C in the first 24 and 48 h after pollination, respectively, but not thereafter. Pollen tube growth rate in the style increased quadratically with increasing temperature from 13 to 29 °C. ‘Manchurian’ was a more effective pollenizer of ‘Golden Delicious’ than was ‘Golden Delicious’ pollen. For example, at 24 or 29 °C, some ‘Manchurian’ pollen tubes grew to the base of ‘Golden Delicious’ styles by 24 h after pollination. On the other hand, no ‘Golden Delicious’ pollen tube grew to the base of a ‘Golden Delicious’ style regardless of temperature and time. Pollen tube growth rate in the style increased with increasing day/night temperature from 7/0 to 24/7 °C. The time required for pollen tubes to grow to the base of styles decreased with increasing day/night temperature from 13/2 to 24/7 °C. Only ≈36 h was required for pollen tubes to grow to the base of style at 24/7 °C, whereas pollen tubes grew very slowly and no pollen tubes grew to the base of style at 7/0 °C regardless of pollen source. LLS + FO, applied 4 or 24 h after pollination, inhibited pollen germination, pollen tube growth in the style, fertilization, and fruit set, but it had no effect when applied 48 h after pollination. These results suggest that LLS + FO applied at this bloom stage causes flower or fruit abscission most likely by inhibiting pollen germination, pollen tube growth in the style, and fertilization.
Effects of Tergitol-TMN-6 surfactant on blossom thinning (fruit set), fruit quality, and yield were studied in different cultivars of peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) during 2003 to 2005, and in one cultivar of nectarine Prunus persica [L.] in one orchard and one cultivar of plum (Prunus domestica [L.]) in two orchards in 2004. In addition to Tergitol-TMN-6, effects of Crocker's fish oil (CFO) alone in three peach cultivars or in combination with lime sulfur in a nectarine cultivar were studied on fruit set, quality, and yield. Tergitol-TMN-6 at 5 mL·L–1 or higher rates, applied at about 75% to 85% bloom, reduced fruit set without russeting peach fruit. Peach fruit size was often increased by Tergitol-TMN-6 treatment. Applications of Tergitol at 20 mL·L–1 or 30 mL·L–1 excessively thinned peaches. Tergitol-TMN-6 at all rates burned foliage, but the symptoms disappeared after a few weeks without any adverse effects on tree productivity. Tergitol-TMN-6 at 7.5 mL·L–1 or 10 mL·L–1, applied either once at about 80% to 85% bloom or twice at 35% bloom and again at 80% to 85% bloom, reduced fruit set without any fruit russeting in nectarine. Tergitol-TMN-6 at 7.5 mL·L–1 to 12.5 mL·L–1 reduced fruit set in `Empress' plum. CFO at 30 mL·L–1 was effective in blossom thinning of some peach cultivars. A combination of lime sulfur and CFO was not effective in blossom thinning of nectarine. Considering results from several orchards in different locations in the Pacific Northwest over 3 years, Tergitol-TMN-6 is an excellent blossom thinner for peach, nectarine, and plum at rates of 7.5 to 12.5 mL·L–1, sprayed at a spray volume of 1870.8 L·ha–1 when about 75% to 85% blooms are open.