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  • Author or Editor: Jeffrey G. Williamson x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

The number, length, and elongation rate of white roots were related to vegetative and reproductive growth of young own-rooted ‘Redhaven’ peach trees from June 1985 until Oct. 1986. Root growth of fruiting and nonfruiting trees were similar, except for a period of 3 to 4 weeks each year either during the final stage of fruit growth or immediately after harvest. During these periods, cropping reduced white root length per tree in both years, and total root growth per tree and number of growing root tips in 1986. Number of elongating root tips was correlated with total root elongation and was a better indicator of total root elongation than was mean root elongation rate of individual root tips.

Open Access

Low night temperatures and/or high source-sink ratios increase ovary swelling and subsequent fruit malformation in many sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum), including bell pepper. Although this response has been correlated with increased ovary carbohydrate accumulation, evidence for this is limited. Furthermore, it is unknown how the combined effects of night temperature and source-sink ratio affect ovary carbohydrate accumulation and ovary swelling. The objectives of the present work were to determine night temperature and source-sink effects on ovary swelling, net carbon exchange rate (CER), and soluble sugar and starch concentrations in bell pepper ovaries at anthesis. Source-sink and temperature effects were tested by comparing fruiting (low source-sink ratio or high sink demand) with non-fruiting (high source-sink ratio or low sink demand) ‘Legionnaire’ bell pepper plants grown at 22/20 °C [high night temperature (HNT)] or 22/12 °C [low night temperature (LNT)] day:night temperatures. Flowers that opened after imposition of the temperature and fruiting treatments were harvested at anthesis. Ovaries from harvested flowers were weighed and analyzed for non-structural carbohydrates. Leaf gas exchange measurements were performed every 3 days. Ovary fresh weight of flowers harvested at anthesis was highest in non-fruiting plants under LNT and lowest in plants grown under HNT regardless of fruiting status. Mean CER averaged over the experimental period was significantly higher in fruiting plants under HNT compared with all other treatments. There were no significant interactions between night temperature and fruiting status on ovary soluble sugar or starch concentrations. Low night temperature increased glucose, fructose, and starch concentration and decreased sucrose concentration in the ovary wall compared with HNT. There were no differences in soluble sugar or starch concentrations in the ovary wall between fruiting and non-fruiting plants. Thus, although both low temperature and high source-sink ratio (i.e., non-fruiting plants) resulted in ovary swelling, the mechanisms appear to differ. Whereas LNT effects on ovary swelling were associated with increased ovary carbohydrate accumulation, this association was not apparent when ovary swelling occurred in response to high source-sink ratios.

Free access

Experiments were conducted with `Misty' southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrid) to test the effects of high temperature on flower bud initiation and carbohydrate accumulation and partitioning. Plants were grown under inductive short days (SDs = 8 hour photoperiod) or noninductive SDs with night interrupt (SD-NI = 8 hour photoperiod + 1 hour night interrupt), at either 21 or 28 °C for either 4 or 8 weeks. Flower bud initiation occurred only in the inductive SD treatments and was significantly reduced at 28 °C compared with 21 °C. The number of flower buds initiated was not significantly different between 4- and 8-week durations within the inductive SD, 21 °C treatment. However, floral differentiation appeared to be incomplete in the 4-week duration buds and bloom was delayed and reduced. Although plant carbohydrate status was not associated with differences in flower bud initiation between SD and SD-NI treatments, within SD plants, decreased flower bud initiation at high temperature was correlated with decreased whole-plant carbohydrate concentration. These data indicate that flower bud initiation in southern highbush blueberry is a SD/long night phytochrome-mediated response, and plant carbohydrate status plays little, if any, role in regulating initiation under these experimental conditions.

Free access

Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production is increasing worldwide, particularly in subtropical growing regions, but information on timing and extent of inflorescence bud development during summer and fall and effects on bloom the next season are limited. The objectives of this study were to determine time of inflorescence bud initiation, describe internal inflorescence bud development, and determine the relationship between internal inflorescence bud development and bloom period the next spring in two southern highbush blueberry [SHB (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids)] cultivars. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel’ SHB buds were collected beginning in late summer until shoot growth cessation in late fall for dissection and identification of organ development. Inflorescence bud frequency and number, vegetative and inflorescence bud length and width throughout development, and bloom were also assessed. Inflorescence bud initiation occurred earlier in ‘Emerald’ compared with ‘Jewel’. Five stages of internal inflorescence bud development were defined throughout fall in both cultivars, ranging from a vegetative meristem to early expansion of the inflorescence bud in late fall. ‘Emerald’ inflorescence buds were larger and bloomed earlier, reflecting the earlier inflorescence bud initiation and development. Although inflorescence bud initiation occurred earlier in ‘Emerald’ compared with ‘Jewel’, the pattern of development was not different. Timing of inflorescence bud initiation influenced timing of bloom with earlier initiation resulting in earlier bloom.

Free access