Net CO2 assimilation (A) rates of ‘Duncan’ grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) and ‘Pineapple’ orange (C. sinensis L.) seedlings grown under 3 different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD), were measured in an open gas exchange system under controlled environmental conditions. Apparent quantum yield (ø), mesophyll conductance to CO2 (Gm), leaf conductance to H2O vapor (G1), transpiration (E) and water use efficiency (WUE) also were examined. Leaves of both species grown under high PPFD (full sunlight) had the greatest maximum rates of A, but the low PPFD (90% shade) leaves had the highest ø. The WUE of low PPFD grapefruit leaves was less than that of the high PPFD leaves but increased within 2 weeks after being moved into full sunlight. Transferring seedlings from low to high PPFD decreased ø of grapefruit but not of orange leaves. Changes in A were more strongly correlated to Gm than to G1. Carbon dioxide assimilation rate was positively correlated to total leaf nitrogen content. Citrus leaf photosynthetic characteristics and resources use efficiency not only acclimate to the light regimes under which they expand and mature, but leaves are capable of acclimating to new light regimes, even after full maturation.
The hydraulic conductivities of intact root systems of 4 commercial citrus rootstocks were estimated using a pressure chamber technique. The rootstocks used were rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.), sour orange (C. aurantium L.), Carrizo citrange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. × C. sinensis (L.) Osb.], and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex TAN). Carrizo and rough lemon seedlings had the highest root conductivity, whereas Cleopatra and sour orange had the lowest root conductivity. Although these rootstocks as seedlings produce root systems in pots that differ from those in the field, some of the growth, yield, and drought resistance chartacteristics that have been previously assoicated with these rootstocks may be at least partially explained by the hydraulic conductivity of their roots.
Whole plant transpiration and maximum rates of net gas exchange of CO2 and H2O vapor from single leaves were positively correlated with the hydraulic conductivity of roots of seedlings of 5 citrus rootstock species, [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. × Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, P. trifoliata, C. autantium L., C. paradisi Macf. × P. trifoliata, and C. reticulata Blanco]. Leaf N and P content and shoot:root ratio also were positively correlated with root conductivity. Differences in soil water depletion and plant water relations of 2 of the rootstocks during drought and recovery cycles apparently were related to their root conductivity. The ranking of root conductivities of these seedlings generally reflects the vigor that these rootstocks impart to trees in the field. Thus, the capability of root systems to conduct water and mineral elements is an important factor in plant growth and physiological activity.
Three-month-old citrus rootstock seedlings of the Cl- excluder Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and the Cl- accumulator Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L.] were fertilized with nutrient solution with or without additional 50 mm NaCl and grown at either ambient CO2 (360 μL·L-1) or elevated CO2 (700 μL·L-1) in similar controlled environment greenhouses for 8 weeks. Elevated CO2 increased plant growth, shoot/root ratio, leaf dry weight per area, net assimilation of CO2, chlorophyll, and water-use efficiency but decreased transpiration rate. Elevated CO2 decreased leaf Ca2+ and N concentration in non-salinized Cleopatra. Salinity increased leaf Cl- and Na+ in both genotypes. Carrizo had higher concentrations of Cl-but lower Na+ in leaves than Cleopatra. Salinity decreased plant growth, shoot/root ratio, net gas exchange, water use, and root Ca+2 but increased root N in both genotypes regardless of CO2 level. Neither salinity nor elevated CO2 affected leaf chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm). Carrizo had higher Fv/Fm, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll, N, and Ca2+ than Cleopatra. Salinity-induced decreases in leaf osmotic potential increased leaf turgor especially at elevated CO2. The increase in leaf growth at elevated CO2 was greater in salinized than in nonsalinized Carrizo but was similar in Cleopatra seedlings regardless of salt treatment. In addition, salinity decreased water-use efficiency more at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2 in Cleopatra but not in Carrizo. Elevated CO2 also decreased leaf Cl- and Na+ in Carrizo but tended to increase both ions in Cleopatra leaves. Based on leaf growth, water-use efficiency and salt ion accumulation, elevated CO2 increased salinity tolerance in the relatively salt-sensitive Carrizo more than in the salt-tolerant Cleopatra. In salinized seedlings of both genotypes, Cl- and Na+ concentration changes in response to eCO2 in leaves vs. roots were generally in opposite directions. Thus, the modifications of citrus seedling responses to salinity by the higher growth and lower transpiration at elevated CO2 were not only species dependent, but also involved whole plant growth and allocations of Na+ and Cl-.
Four-year-old `Redblush' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) trees on either the relatively fast-growing rootstock `Volkamer' lemon (VL) (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.) or on the slower-growing rootstock sour orange (SO) (C. aurantium L.) were transplanted into 7.9-m3 drainage lysimeter tanks filled with native Candler sand, irrigated similarly, and fertilized at three N rates during 2.5 years. After 6 months, effects of N application rate and rootstock on tree growth, evapotranspiration, fruit yield, N uptake, and leaching were measured during the following 2 years. When trees were 5 years old, low, medium, and high N application rates averaged about 79,180, or 543 g N/tree per year and about 126,455, or 868 g N/tree during the following year. Recommended rates average about 558 g N/tree per year. A lysimeter tank with no tree and additional trees growing outside lysimeters received the medium N treatment. Nitrogen concentration in the drainage water increased with N rate and exceeded 10 mg·liter-1 for trees receiving the high rates and also for the no tree tank. Leachate N concentration and total N recovered was greater from trees on SO than from those on VL. Average N uptake efficiency of medium N rate trees on VL was 6870 of the applied N and 61 % for trees on SO. Nitrogen uptake efficiency decreased with increased N application rates. Trees outside lysimeters had lower leaf N and fruit yield than lysimeter trees. Overall, canopy volume and leaf N concentration increased with N rate, but there was no effect of N rate on fibrous root dry weight. Fruit yield of trees on SO was not affected by N rate but higher N resulted in greater yield for trees on VL. Rootstock had no effect on leaf N concentration, but trees on VI. developed larger canopies, had greater fibrous root dry weight, used more water, and yielded more fruit than trees on SO. Based on growth, fruit yield and N leaching losses, currently recommended N rates were appropriate for trees on the more vigorous VL rootstock but were 22% to 69 % too high for trees on SO.
We compared net gas exchange rates of CO2 and H2O vapor of greenhouse-grown `Duncan' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) and `Valencia' orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves after multiple foliar sprays of urea N with and without NaCl: CaCl2 solutions. Highly saline solutions (3.8 dSm-1) caused necrotic burn symptoms after leaf chloride levels reached 7 mmol·m-2. Grapefruit leaves had higher leaf Cl and more burn symptoms than orange leaves. The remaining green areas of all salt-stressed leaves, however, had similar rates of net CO2 assimilation (ACO2) and stomatal conductance (gs) as water-sprayed control leaves. Total leaf N and chlorophyll increased with repeated foliar applications of urea solutions regardless of salinity levels in the spray solution. Thus, salts in solution did not interfere with foliar absorption of N. High urea N solutions (33.6 g·liter-1) without salts caused foliar burn and leaf abscission after one application. Three sprays of urea-N solution (11.2 g·liter-1) increased N concentration of N-deficient leaves about 60% and increased ACO2 rate about 50%. ACO2 did not increase when nitrogen concentration in leaves exceeded a threshold value of about 200 mmol·m-2 so photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE = ACO2/N) decreased with increasing leaf N concentration. Net gas exchange and PNUE was higher for grapefruit than for orange leaves. Leaf Cl levels from foliar-applied salts may not be as detrimental to leaf gas exchange as Cl from salts in soil-applied irrigation water.
Seedlings of ‘Pineapple’ sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] (Swt), Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort ex Tan) (Cleo)], and trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] (Tri) were grown from seed for 10 months in 2-liter containers of native Candler fine sand in a glasshouse, watered two times per week, and fertilized weekly with a complete nutrient solution. NaCI at 0, 15, 30, or 60 mM was added to the watering solution for 2 additional months. Increases in salinity decreased hydraulic conductivity of roots, transpiration rate, leaf water potential, and root growth. The effect of salinity on mineral composition of tissues was rootstock-dependent. High salinity leaves of Tri had the highest N, K+, and Cl− but the lowest Na+, whereas Tri roots had the highest Na+ at the highest salinity. High-salinity Cleo leaves had the lowest Cl− and K. All seedlings survived −4°C for 6 hr in a controlled freeze test. Salinity decreased leaf loss, except in the deciduous Tri, in which 60 mM NaCI may have been excessive. Thus, moderate salinity treatment can reduce growth and modify water and mineral nutrient relations so as to increase cold hardiness of certain Citrus species.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate seasonal changes in the free proline content of citrus roots, leaves, fruit peel, and juice in response to low-temperature and water stress. Nonirrigated trees generally had higher proline in all tissues than did irrigated trees except immediately after a freeze. At this time, nonirrigated trees were less water-stressed because of the greater amount of freeze-induced defoliation that nonirrigated trees had sustained. Using data from an entire year, proline concentration was not correlated with water stress of leaves or fruit. This lack of correlation probably was due to the interacting effects of water stress and low temperature on proline accumulation. Leaves accumulated proline in response to stress before roots and fruit. These data support the idea that the free proline increases first in the leaves in response to stress and subsequently is transported to other tree tissues. Even though proline content in the juice increased with fruit maturity, proline may not be a good indicator of juice quality since it did not always correspond with Brix:acid ratio and fruit in the most exposed canopy positions tended to have the highest proline content.
‘Duncan’ grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) and ‘Pineapple’ sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) seedlings were grown in full sunlight, 50% and 90% shade; maximum photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of 2300, 1100 and 200 μmol s−1m−2, respectively. In fully expanded matured (hardened) leaves, leaf thickness, specific leaf weight (SLW), tissue density, and nitrogen content were highest in full sun leaves and lowest in 90% shade leaves. Leaf chlorophyll content was highest in 90% shade leaves. Half of the seedlings which were grown in full sunlight were transferred into 50% shade to simulate normal canopy development; half of the seedlings from 50% and 90% shade were moved into full sunlight to simulate changes that occur after hedging. Specific leaf weight and tissue density changed in the same direction as PPFD. Leaf nitrogen content decreased temporarily when leaves were exposed to new PPFD conditions regardless of the PPFD levels. Total leaf chlorophyll content initially decreased when seedlings were transferred into full sunlight but began to increase after 4–6 weeks. Chlorophyll content increased in seedlings transferred from full sun to 50% shade. Percentage of air space within leaf tissues did not change during acclimation to new PPFD levels. Changes in leaf anatomy, physical characteristics, and chemical components are mechanisms that enable citrus leaves to acclimate to a wide range of changing light environments, even after leaves are fully mature.
Positional differences among leaf and fruit surface temperatures and water relations of ‘Ruby’ grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) were related to fruit load and juice quality. Southern top canopy positions experienced the highest temperatures and lower water potentials and yielded more fruit with more soluble solids than other canopy positions. Canopy depth was also an important determinant of fruit yield and early season juice quality. Based on data from 3 trees during 2 seasons, there were greater fruit loads with higher °Brix and lower acidity in the outside canopy positions than in the inside positions. Upper canopy positions tended to have lower acidity and consequently higher °Brix/acid ratios than the lower positions. Abaxial fruit hemispheres were smaller and had a lower percent juice than their paired adaxial fruit hemispheres. Grapefruit from sunlit canopy positions mature earlier than fruit from shaded positions. Since there were more fruit with higher soluble solids in the most exposed canopy positions, daily heat stress and leaf and fruit water stress were not limiting factors in grapefruit yield and juice quality with respect to different tree canopy positions.