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  • Author or Editor: J. L. Turner x
  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Abstract

Field studies were conducted on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil (Typic Paleudults) in central Alabama to determine the effects of tillage methods (complete, strip, and no-tillage), nitrogen rates (100 and 200 kg/ha), and rye (Secale cereale) cover crop on growth and yield of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Marketable tomato yields tended to decrease as amount of tillage decreased. The 3-year average yields for complete-tillage, strip-tillage, and no-tillage treatments were 29.9, 27.0, and 26.0 MT/ha, respectively. There was no consistent effect from N-rate on marketable yields. Average yields from the lower N-rate were greater than the higher N-rate in the two driest years and were similar or higher from the higher N-rate in the year of more average rainfall. Marketable yields tended to be greater on no-rye plots than on rye plots, with yields averaging 2.2 MT/ha higher for no-rye plots.

Open Access

Abstract

Field studies were conducted on Plinthic and Typic Paleudult soils in central Alabama to determine the response of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), to furrow, sprinkle, and trickle irrigation with and without in-row chiseling. Irrigation by all methods and in-row chiseling increased plant heights which ranged from 70 to 120 cm at first harvest. Marketable tomato yields were influenced more by irrigation (37% increase) than by chiseling (8% increase). Yields averaged 36.7 metric tons/ha with no irrigation and 50.1 metric tons/ha with irrigation. No difference was found between irrigation methods. Amounts of irrigation water applied per season averaged 34.5 cm for furrow, 37.4 cm for sprinkle, and 16.0 cm for trickle. In-row chiseling increased yields an average of 3.7 metric tons/ha, but was significant in only 1 of 3 years.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Tropic’ and ‘Walter’ tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) were grown in central Alabama on a Lucedale fine sandy loam soil (Rhodic Paleudult) with uniform 0- to 15-cm surface soil pH of about 6.0 and subsoil pH ranging from 4.4 to 6.2. Depth and amount of soil water extraction and plant heights increased as subsoil pH increased. Marketable tomato yields were influenced by subsoil pH, with maximum yields occurring at pH 5.6 to 5.8. Marketable yields ranged from 10,400 to 55,500 kg/ha for ‘Tropic’ and from 14,000 to 39,400 kg/ha for ‘Walter’. Yield of large size fruit of ‘Tropic’ was greater above pH 5.0 than below pH 5.0. Fruit size distribution for ‘Walter’ was not affected by subsoil pH.

Open Access

Abstract

Field studies were conducted to determine the response of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) to no, intermediate, and high irrigation with 0, 65, 100, and 135 kg N/ha on beans and 56 and 112 kg N/ha on cucumbers. Intermediate irrigation increased marketable yields, but high irrigation did not. Average snap bean yields for the 3-year period by soil water regimes were 5,800, 7,000, and 6,800 kg/ha, and for cucumbers were 32,200, 35,400, and 33,000 kg/ha for no, intermediate, and high irrigation, respectively. Applied N increased yields, with the 3-year average snap bean yields being 4,600, 6,600, 7,200 and 7,700 kg/ha for 0, 65, 100 and 135 kg/ha rates, respectively, and cucumber yields being 31,900 and 35,100 kg/ha for 56 and 112 kg/ha, respectively. There was a greater response to N fertilizer on the spring crop than on the fall crop.

Open Access

Abstract

Roots of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] and beet (Beta vulgaris L.) peeled with superheated steam, had higher peel and trim yields than did those peeled with saturated steam at the same pressure. Product recovery was greater with all steam-peeling methods than with caustic peeling. Direct injection of cold water into the partially pressurized steam atmosphere of the peeler also increased product recovery. Better color retention in processed beets was obtained from steam-peeled roots than from caustic-peeled roots.

Open Access